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The Phenomenon of Eternal Existence. Some results of reflection about the Turing
model of consciousness. - 2010. (Electronic edition. Popular science publication). Polosukhin Boris
English-language reader! You have in front of a translation of our book, made by automatic translation companies Googl and Prompt. The translation is done in 2010. The author brings the reader an apology in advance for the quality of translation, because he had no opportunity for a number of reasons to interfere in the translation manually. The author hopes that with time the quality of translation could be improved.
Is there really immortal or is it just a religious myth? The author proposes and justifies the scientific hypothesis that the existence of another life - a real natural phenomenon, closely connected with another phenomenon - the human mind. This book is a special form out of personal immortality, is called by the term "subjective immortality" and apparently coinciding with the Buddhist concept of reincarnation I'm human.
While the themes of the book is relevant to the widest range of readers, the subject matter is indeed complex, can not be called easy in some places and method of disclosure topics. Therefore, the reader is required or a high level of training or attentiveness and willingness to overcome the encountered difficulties in reading the book. The reward for this can serve as new knowledge about such an unusual phenomenon.
favorite of my wife dedicate
Since the first edition of this book at the Moscow publishing house "Nauka" (1993), passed 17 years. Quite long enough on the scale of human life, and sometimes social and political, as happened in Russia. But this term is negligible in terms of global, profound changes of the human mind. This must be said, to briefly highlight the history (if that word is appropriate here) the development of the idea of the phenomenon of eternal existence after the first edition of the book.
Circulation of books (10 thousand copies) sold pretty quickly that it is not surprising. This was the demolition of one monopolistic ideas, and the birth of mass and splashing in the light of a variety of concepts and little ideas, various rumors. All they have formed a rather stormy, we might say, a muddy stream. The author can not say that in this flow concept "PhEE" as a significantly differentiated, but surely can say that it is not carried away into oblivion.
For a short time, the author received about two dozen letters from readers. Most of them contained the epithets of the most superlatives. Only one letter was abusive. However, suffered desecration not the idea itself, but a lot of grammatical errors that slipped through the sieve of copyright and correcting the eye. Like, how can such a careless clearance to submit a book to scientists and university councils? However, the criticism was fair for the author's laudable: it means that the idea deserves to be with her go to the highest scientific authority.
In the highest scientific authority by neither then nor later did not run. But with the moral and material support of management institute where the author was then working, was in this institution to hold the first (unfortunately, the only) scientific-theoretical conference, entitled "Information aspects of life, death and immortality." The Conference was quite representative: in addition to (mainly) Moscow reports, presentations and speakers were from Chelyabinsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Kiev. Even managed to publish the proceedings of the conference - much as 100 copies. Basically, they all retired to the authors of the reports on the familiar. Several instances have to implement in two major libraries in Moscow.
Following the conference, the author had the opportunity to make presentations and reports on the concept of "PhEE" has a number of conferences and seminars (Christmas readings at MSU , Institute of Oriental Studies, seminars in the Institute of Philosophy , several workshops on the biological and physical faculties). In 2001, the Internet was created site www.polosuhin.narod.ru , which compiled a rather extensive material on the "PhEE".
The electronic edition of the book compared to the first undergone several changes. Added some new sections (sections), clarified some of the language, the most difficult, according to the author places the text, with the addition of explanations. Added to the list of literature.
Chapter 1. Do not look at the mountain from close range
so, with difficulty trying to develop
How would a ball of some complex yarn
Suddenly you see and what should be called Immortality. Oh, our superstitions!
The conversation in this book will be about immortality. Subject, of course, attractive. It sounds, if not rude, it certainly is unusual for people educated in the precepts of materialism. Known textbook syllogism: All men are mortal, all Greeks - the people and therefore, all Greeks are mortal. Thousands of years this syllogism "works" by forming our psyche. Alexander of Macedon - a man? Yes. He died? Yes. Julius Caesar - a man? Yes. He died? Yes. Napoleon Bonaparte - a man? Yes. He died? Yes ... You - the person? Yes. So, you die.
But thousand years many world religions learn – the person, you will die, but behind a coffin you are waited with other life. What it is sweet, but empty dream? Or in this emptiness too there is a rational grain? Whether from surplus of impudence, whether because of absence of caution the author has asked to himself a question, the answer on which was embodied in this book.
The word immortality is multiple-valued. It is possible to speak about immortality of any ideas or doctrines. It is quite comprehensible this word when it is a question of immortality of mankind or an alive matter sounds. We shall consider this concept of its most agitating aspect, namely in relation to separately taken person.
In process of a deepening in subject matter we shall see, as at such «narrowing» to statement of the problem there can be some interpretation of this term.
Generally speaking, for the objectives put in this book, the term 'immortality' is not quite successful. Immortal - means, not dying. To us in the further « eternal life » will be more convenient to use concept. We do not assume to put in it more strict in mathematical sense understanding - infinite life. But it is very long life, say so: it is a lot of, many lives. Theoretical restriction by it is not present 'much-a lot of'.
Speaking about immortality, about eternal life some words about their antipode – death of which we think usually more would be wrong to not tell even, than we speak: its image passes before our mind mournfully and silently. The death is understood by materialistically conceiving mind, first of all, as death of a body – its transition in a condition incompatible, on expression of physicians, with a life.
But for the person dying or suddenly perishing is not destruction of a body or any vital body, not infringement of their functioning, that is not temporary process, extensional or brief. For dying the death comes from disappearance of consciousness, and the further if to use become ordinary expression, not his problem.
Thus, communication of consciousness and death – is doubtless. In the further we shall see, as immortality as an antipode of death too has deep internal communication with consciousness. Secrets of death and immortality is including, and maybe, and first of all, secrets of consciousness. In the world in which there is no consciousness, is inappropriate to speak about any secrets.
Therefore we shall leave behind frameworks of our consideration, undoubtedly, important, if not for immortality for prolongation of a life, biological and medical questions and we shall concentrate our attention on mentioned above communication. Central, in opinion of the author, a link of this communication – consciousness.
The mankind is interested in a phenomenon of consciousness for a long time: the consciousness is studied by psychology, logic, philosophy, the religion could not pass by it. It is necessary to note, that ways of the approach to studying thinking as compound link of consciousness from computer science and one of youngish scientific directions – theories of an artificial intellect in recent years are outlined. We shall show, that ideas of these areas of knowledge will appear fruitful in studying a problem actually consciousnesses and as consequences of it is eternal life.
So it has turned out, that all over again the author, neither a dream, nor spirit not thinking about subject matter of immortality, exhausting long considered a question, that such consciousness. Having read through any minimum of the literature on consciousness, he has understood – philosophy and a science on a question – that such consciousness – to answer are yet ready.
Many and many thousand pages are used up, numerous characteristics and properties of consciousness are revealed and fixed, but the uniform fundamental concept of consciousness is not created yet.
It is possible even to make sure in the return, that the standard opinion on consciousness as means of knowledge to some extent does not express its primary essence and thereof withdraws us aside from a proper way of the decision of this problem.
At the same time the knowledge got during professional work, computer science, have allowed the author to pull for invisible many people thread which has led to the formulation of a certain rational, consistent concept of occurrence and development of consciousness.
At all stages of reflection it was clear, at least, one – to explain this concept or model simple words, habitual concepts will not possible. So it also has appeared: the models found and described further have abstract enough abstract, mathematical character, as a matter of fact nothing speaking to the person distant from mathematicians, computer science and cybernetics.
In this regard it would be possible to not experience: many of associates us complex things and the phenomena to us are not clear, that at all does not impede to live easy to us. Only units among huge weight understand the theory of an electromagnetic field, but mass misunderstanding of this theory does not impede to use to people TV and radio. Perhaps, even well, that do not understand. Otherwise it will turn out, as with one scientists which has been compelled to refuse driving the car for the reason, that at the wheel it all time thought of the processes occuring in the chamber of combustion of the engine.
Really, there are scientists, experts who will understand with complex model of consciousness; it will allow them to get more deeply into secrets of work of a brain to treat illnesses, to correct defects and to do set other useful and clear to people of things.
It would seem, it would be possible and to be limited to such understanding of ways of propagation and use of scientific knowledge of consciousness. But with model of consciousness, on our deep belief, all should be not so, all should be in another way.
As soon as the author had precise enough own understanding, that such consciousness, is more precise – what model can lay in its basis as if the beam of a projector maximum sharply and contrastly shined the decision of a problem about which in the beginning there was no also an idea, to designate which verbally even a little horribly – problems of eternal life.
This problem concerns not only scientists (as in case of with construction of model of consciousness), it, undoubtedly, interests and agitates all and everyone, though in our pragmatical century a problem of immortality (if to speak about its not religious interpretation) while in any way will not name actual.
If the religion is mentioned, it is necessary to note, that the religious idea of immortality basically is clear everything, including to atheists. In it feature of religious knowledge in general is shown: it is always focused on a level of mass consciousness. The scientific knowledge is constantly compelled to be above this level.
Therefore before us there is an additional difficulty: not receding from scientific severity of a statement to try to make line of reasoning whenever possible available. How much it managed – to be judged not to us.
Nevertheless, it should be admitted, that, despite of desire of the author to address this book to the broad audience of readers, nonspecialists, as well as unprepared readers at work on the chapters, devoted to the description of the basic concepts of modelling of consciousness, can experience some difficulties.
That them to overcome, the certain efforts be required: sending in interesting, but difficult travel, it is not necessary to concern to it, as to easy walk.
Mass media alongside with objective reflection of life surrounding us lately more increasing and immerse us – readers, listeners, spectators – in a certain fantastic world irreal essence more. The poltergeist, telekinesis, telepathy, spiritism, an astrology, sorcery, UFO, humanoids – here it is distant not the full list of these irrealities. However for many travel on this world is more likely pleasant, than difficultly. Business is has reached that becomes unimportant – whether there is all this actually or not.
The created attributes exist in itself in heads of people, in descriptions of numerous 'witnesses' and 'eyewitnesses', not speaking about official publications. The system was created, which itself supports and serves. In a number of the irrealities listed and not listed here the subject matter of immortality discussed by us could take worthy seat, and in the specified sense interest to it from reading public would be provided. But the given circumstance pleases not so much, how many afflicts.
Despite of attempts of attendants of the mentioned irreal system to give to it a respectable scientific type, despite of scientific degrees and ranks of the certain part of commentators, finally, despite of existence of the people who completely have devoted of such activity, this system has borrowed a niche which is not conterminous with a niche, to traditionally belonging science. And as though someone would be desirable to consider it in the most serious image, we cannot refuse a conclusion, that the given system 'keeps' basically on ineradicable human thirst of a miracle. What maybe greater miracle, than eternal life?
But we would not like, that consideration in the book of subject matter of immortality served only to satisfaction of similar thirst. Let for the sceptic told further will sound unpersuasively, but in a basis of all our constructions the sober scientific idea, instead of desire of satisfaction of thirst of a miracle lays only. Therefore fear to be incorrectly understood – here the main reason for our alarm.
Further the reader often enough should collide with attempt of the author to compare with sights of various philosophical schools at those or other questions connected with our subject matter. It would be desirable, that the attitude of the reader to such seats would be whenever possible released from excessive bias.
Continued some decades in our society indoctrination a philosophical idea have imposed a known print even on cleanly formal classification of world outlooks: everything, that is connected with a word materialism – well, with a word idealism – it is bad. Business, certainly, not in words, not in the pasted labels, and in an establishment of true.
As it seems to us, the idealistic idea at times finds quite rational grains, yes they only are sowed not in that ground. And if to be truthful up to the end neither consecutive materialists, nor consecutive idealists have not proved absolute advantage of the position above a position of the opponent. Each side has also victories and defeats, there was no between them only a world. Speaking about the world, we, certainly, do not mean the termination of discussions, but struggle – yes.
Lately the term materialism, one step at a time disappearing from pages of publications, should get in a shadow of the leaving past. Nevertheless, the author in the given essay will obviously adhere to sights of materialistic sense. First, because the author so has been brought up, but it, perhaps, secondly.
The main thing in that (and it will be shown), that materialistic methodology peculiar to a science, having got in fact in other-wordly areas of knowledge and not having entered into the contradiction with itself, can as it seems to us, on rationally put questions on essence of consciousness, death and immortality to give the same rational answers.
The reader will not find specific proposals in the given book on realization of those or other details of cases in point. All of us time we shall be within the limits of conceptual approaches to a problem. To see mountain, it is not necessary to aspire to take of a position near to it the costing observer.
From the close point of view it will be compelled to be content with a type of any site of a slope, a heap of stones, on it scattered, etc. On mountain it is necessary to look from apart. The consciousness is a mountain, immortality – a massif. And, it appears, the chosen generalized point of view is quite proportional to scale of a considered problem.
Some words about the methodological approach used in the given book. It is a question of modeling. Modeling in itself – the most powerful tool helping us to learn surrounding validity. To choose or create successful model is more, than halfway to success.
Ahead of the reader acquaintance to several models waits: information, mathematical, mental. On models we shall build our hypotheses, and on them to check. It is necessary to remember, that purpose of models happens a miscellaneous: sometimes they happen are useful only as evident illustrations, but at times the model becomes a key opening a secret door.
The offered book is not intended for easy reading, as not maybe the easy decision of the problems put in it. For the best orientation of the reader we shall give a summary of a material of the book under chapters, not making comments only the first, introduction chapter. The second chapter somewhat is orientation, entering the reader in an essence of a problem.
Reading of this chapter should not cause difficulties in understanding. In it the concept of religious immortality is described; it is noted, that the basis of this concept is made with concept of immortal soul.
In the same chapter the description of quite admissible, not requiring supernatural backgrounds, hypothetical requirements which could become a basis of immortality in a materialistic way is offered. The offered materialistic model appears in the most direct image connected with concept of human consciousness, 'I' of the person.
The further of the chapter, the third, the fourth and the fifth, consistently state an essence of information model of interoperability of a brain with environment and 'algorithmic' model of occurrence of consciousness. Further the reader will understand, why this word is taken in inverted commas. Thus the third chapter in the certain degree auxiliary.
In it if necessary it is brief, but, from our point of view, enough soundly the regulations about volume are opened, that the problem of consciousness of the person is not maybe understood outside of a retrospective show, that is outside of the evolutionary approach to subject matter.
In this chapter we consider a brain as a certain system of processing of the information. The similar sight is not new and is divided by wide range of experts. On the other hand, it is necessary to note, that the popular belief that the brain represents only the receiver and the transmitter of the information is wide enough. Not rejecting on a similar sight, we, nevertheless, consider, that the similar treatment of a brain gives nothing in the decision of a problem of consciousness and only will withdraw us on minor ways.
The concept of progress of information model of interoperability of a brain stated in the third chapter with environment in many respects coincides with the standard idea of evolution of a brain of alive organisms.
We see additional argument in this fact in favor of validity of the information approach, especially if to consider, that the course of our reasonings was under construction on the basis of logic of model when the author yet was not in essence a sign with traditional concepts on this account.
Serious, in our opinion, the attention in this chapter is given one of fundamental categories whom the information is. We leave from traditional functional and attributive interpretation of this concept and we develop a nonconventional sight at the information as on original model of reflection of attitudes.
In this model concept the attitude on the role is put on one level with concept of a matter. The idea on the similar approach, naturally, was born not on naked seat: preconditions to it met in many works read through about the information.
But, perhaps, a sight most clearly interesting us though and under angle of vision distinct from ours, to us has met in work . Understanding of a special role of the attitude in a design of a universe well is shown also in work .
We do not apply for that offered a little below definition of the information it has appeared the most proper and, especially – final. However it allows to express more distinctly such difficultly definable concept as the sense and after this provides the way to come close to interpretation of essence of human consciousness.
It has to be noted, that the information model stated in the third chapter has especially illustrative character. Classification of types of the brain, given in this chapter, is necessary to us for confirming the validity of other models - evolutionary and Turing which description will be presented in following chapters.
The special attention in the third chapter also is given a background of the information concept of work of a brain. The reader will see, that, having accepted a postulate on the "algorithmic" nature of work of a brain, we shall come to denying the certain part of this postulate. And, probably, it is necessary to see display of laws of dialectics in it.
The key to understanding of a problem of consciousness, consequently, to immortality hidden in the Turing model (its basis is the Turing machine makes), the essence and various which aspects of display are stated in the fourth and fifth chapters. It is necessary, the truth, all time to remember, that it will be a question of properties and work of model, instead of an actual brain.
Therefore the big seat in these chapters borrows comparison of properties of model to the fact sheet received within the limits of such scientific disciplines, as biology, psychology, the theory of evolution, and connected in the certain aspects with a considered problem.
The special seat in these chapters is given the description of the property designated by the term self-applicability of model as it, in our opinion, is responsible' for occurrence of a phenomenon of consciousness. The author does not know about existence in a brain of any specific process yet, comparable to property of self-applicability. Especially, we cannot describe the structure possessing this interesting property. But that similar process and similar structure exist, for us is not a subject to doubt. To possible 'traces' of their display in the fifth chapter pays attention.
In the sixth chapter on the basis of the results stated in the previous chapters, we again come back to the concept of immortality (more precisely, an eternal existence). Unlike the mental model described in the second chapter, the given concept gets the certain theoretical background, and as it seems to us, gets capacity to represent itself as a scientific hypothesis. It is especially emphasized, that the offered concept is quite materialistic. At the same time its essence, the truth, in « idealistic packing » is shown, that, reflected in a number of world religions.
The seventh chapter, perhaps, the most concise, represents a touch to boundless subject matter which could be named as « Immortality and a social life ». Finishes the book a small epilogue in which attempt to attract attention the reader on central instants of questions discussed in the book is made.
It should be admitted, that the circle of these questions far falls outside the limits our direct professional work – computer science. In this connection it was necessary "to shovel" significant enough volume of not profile literature, and selection of quoted sources was accidental in the certain degree: sometimes it were books which « came across under a hand », sometimes what managed to be got.
Undoubtedly, absence of system in selection of quoted sources could lead any undesirable and, unfortunately, to consequences invisible to the author from the point of view of conceptual harmony of a statement of a material. But we see in it also obvious plus.
At all not quite organized so, inadvertent (say for definiteness - accidental) selection of a quoted material has given so much confirmings of the offered hypothesis on many questions considered here and problems, that hardly it is possible to consider their availability accidental.
The author realizes, that many questions discussed in the book, first of all concerning consciousnesses, death and lives after death, concern to borders of human knowledge and consequently very much and very much are not simple.
The conceptual device which has developed in occasion of these by that, is historically focused in such a manner that does not give a simple possibility for their nonconventional illumination. We shall not hide, that we experience difficulties for supply of a material, especially, when it should be made in the intelligible form.
For overcoming such position following reception is used: besides a statement of the basic sights and backgrounds to them a certain similarity of Ariadne's thread 'is stretched' through the text of the book, «bundles» which paragraphs and the phrases italicized are.
It as though the direct reference to the reader, giving to it orientation: on what it is necessary to pay special attention why those or other questions are involved in consideration, etc. It is possible to hope, that by means of similar 'labels' the reader with smaller difficulties will manage to overcome a labyrinth in which it invites to enter our book.
Author eternally grateful to his wife, Polosukhina T.G., who played a catalytic role of passive skeptic in relation to the author's innovation and an active organizer of a stable environment for long meditations. The author bitterly laments her death and believes that her memory for many years will continue in this book.
The author pays tribute to untimely deceased professor Abramov V.A., he actively supported the idea of writing this book. It should express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Volkov V.A. (tragically died in 2002), Kozlov V.I., Kostin A.E., associate professors Bystrov I.F., Pyanzin A.J.,Volkov A.V. - the first readers of several successive versions of the book. Their helpful advice and comments have allowed just the right accents in the most critical locations. The discussions that arose during the discussion of the book, is a peculiar activating factor enabling, when necessary, expand the range originally scheduled for consideration of issues and in this sense use occurred controversy and discussion is beyond doubt.
I would like to mention here laconic, but very significant in this case approving comments about the book, made by the late academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, A.I. Larkin, and made by the late member of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Akushskii I.Y.
It should be noted understanding and friendly attitude to this work by co-chair of 'Information technology and software of computing systems,' Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology, where at the time of this writing, the author worked. First and foremost, this applies to the head of the chair of the State Prize Laureate, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Shanginu V.F.
The author, preparing the electronic edition of the book, considers it his duty to correct his mistake, made during the first edition and pay tribute to the memory of Academician N.N. Moiseev, reading the manuscript of a book that has made a number of useful comments and advice and recommending a book for publication. Without his advice book would never have seen the light.
The author also expresses appreciation to the leadership of the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (Technical University), represented by former rector of the Moscow Institute of Electronic Werner V.A. and the present rector Chaplygin Y.A., as well as some technology executives at the Centre MIET (this is primarily Basayev A.S. Konyakhin V.S.), which provided material and moral support in holding the MIET scientific-theoretical conference ' Information aspects of life, death and immortality.
Thus, grain thrown. In order to make it sprouted, two necessary conditions: the seed must be viable, and the soil is prepared.
Chapter 2. Arm in arm with religion
Grandpa, - all men die?
- Yes, dear, everything.
- It's a pity. And in England, too, die?
- And in England die, my friend.
- It's a pity. Grandpa, and those who died will never grow up?
- No, not grow.
- I am sorry, Grandpa, that does not grow
From a conversation with his grandson
To the grandson was five years when this conversation took place. At such age children always specify challenging questions. The most unexpected for the grandfather there was a mention of England. Eventually, he has regarded it as a kind sign: in England there lived A.Turing.
As they say, only costing on his shoulders, it was possible to make out through foggy to a smoke sparkling peak, so similar to a mirage. To the grandson had to answer traditionally though to the grandfather absolutely other answer was known. The grandson has been disappointed. – it is a pity to the grandfather of the grandson. And how to answer differently? Our today's knowledge about nonexistence, what will be after death (as it – nothing will be?), is the knowledge constructed on ignorance; knowledge – faith, knowledge – the general arrangement. Here to be better for it together with all.
That the idea on immortality has occurred the child – clearly: he opens the world new to, the world of existence. In this world it is a lot of questions, but it, the world of existence, in any case is more clear for children's consciousness, than the world of nonexistence. We shall let alone the child and we shall state the more definitely our first question.
Whether the problem of immortality agitates people? In the past – it is doubtless, yes. The subject matter of immortality very and very agitated human mind about what speak numerous myths, legends, fairy tales of many people. Finally, the religion – the most ancient and till now an alive organism of human culture – is inconceivable without subject matter of an eternal life.
However if to carry a brought attention to the question to times today's, the answer to it is represented not so unequivocal. Scientific as it is accepted to speak, thinking, having taken hold of a lot of minds, has not left seat for similar subject matter; at least, in an ordinary life it is not accepted to speak about it.
It is not accepted to extend especially now and in occasion of an antipode of immortality – death. Really, it is the delicate subject matter which is not suffering idle talks, mentions in vain. But to collide to us with it, alas, it is necessary often enough, and we submissively and it is obedient we accept it.
As to subject matter of immortality in conditions of the religious environment as it has noted been, it quite in some detail is discussed, and it looks naturally enough. In an atheistic environment the similar subject matter, as a rule, is not considered by virtue of prospective absence of a point of issue.
Above the author as though has a little bit uncertainly expressed in occasion of the question stated by it only because has no personal observations. The data resulted in the book of Kryvelev I.A. « The criticism of the religious doctrine about immortality », draws a following picture: for example, third of Americans are trusting in afterlife, three quarters of religious Americans also trust during a life after death [5, p.5].
Full data on our country at the author are absent, but the selective interrogations lead in some regions, allow to assume, that the same three quarters of believing residents of some areas of the central Russia also trust in afterlife [5, p.5]. It appears, both the subject matter is, and the subject matter for discussion too is, only there is it in space of default.
Now the second question on which we, the truth, do not assume to answer. The idea of immortality whence has undertaken? Daily experience learns us, that all alive is mortal. Fabrics of an organism can be destroyed is artificial or to grow old naturally, in itself: both and another brings that to ruin an organism. It is considered to be, that in the certain conditions the elementary particle of an organism – a cell is immortal only: it know to itself, shares.
Thus the truth when we speak about immortality of a cell during it karyokinesis somehow we do not give a thought, that initial quantity of atoms in the cell taken, say, after the 100-th division in ten with thirty zero less, than in an initial cell, that is, as a matter of fact,it is not the cell. But we, nevertheless, speak about immortality of a cell it for is identified by us not on nuclear structure but only on functions carried out by her. We shall refer to this circumstance a little bit later.
Question, the idea of immortality whence has undertaken, has obviously intriguing, but all the same laying away from our discussion, character. It, maybe, simply dream which has born, as the protest against the law of general dying. Some people are inclined to think, that this idea is brought in a human head by the Supreme Essence. And maybe, it was born in this head as a result of the certain conclusions? We shall not guess, and we shall simply estimate the fact of its existence as argument in favor of that the author has undertaken not for vain business.
Entering into a discussion of a problem of immortality, it is necessary to define a point of issue neatly. In introduction attempt to outline considered area has been made; we shall make it now more thoroughly. So, onwards it will be a question of concept of the eternal life taken concerning as though separate person.
Till recent times in this concept extremely religious sense was put. Atheistically thinking authors if spoke about an eternal life, as a rule, with a sign a minus.
For the further statement though it too costs on atheistic positions, even simplified classification of the individual immortality taken in religious sense is required to the author. However all over again – a little the general, connected with religion, remarks.
It is possible to look at religion from the different points of view. One of them declares religion imagination, a deceit: anything such about what it speaks, actually does not exist. Therefore supposedly does not follow it, at least, in sense of knowledge chrism of an arrangement to give any serious value.
The similar point of view is widely enough widespread; it is simple if to not tell more. Other point of view assumes, that the religion is the divine revelation, given to the person from above. Who similar revelation receives, that, as though knows, that all indeed actually. The same people who do not possess supersensual experience, are called up for faith. The given sight at religion is peculiar, first of all, to the religion.
We shall stop on the following point of view. The religion is the system of knowledge received by mankind on a long way of progress of civilizations by means of reasonings, supervision, comparisons and, eventually, conjectures and so-called supersensual experience (last – subject matter of the special, complex conversation which is beyond the present book). Not rejecting the given phenomenon in essence, we for ourselves consider more convenient to name it « a non-standard condition of a brain ».
As any human knowledge is structured (more about this will be discussed in the section 'Was the first word?'), that, speaking about an inaccuracy or debatableness of this or that system of knowledge (for example, religions), it is necessary to distinguish neatly, what elements or attitudes of this system are false.
The given statement requires the explanatory. We shall take an example of the elementary knowledge about « the house which roads » cost nearby. In this knowledge there are only two elements – 'house', 'road' and a sheaf – « to stand nearby ». It is possible to concern to similar knowledge as to true: really, why to any house to stand about any road?
However if in the same phrase to take advantage of a sheaf « to walk nearby » the knowledge turns to a fable. In a similar way, if in the same knowledge, even at conservation of an initial sheaf, an element 'house' to replace with an element 'angel', again it turns out fantastic (not for everything, certainly) a plot. On the basis of told, we always, mentioning any religious concepts, shall mean structure of this knowledge in the sense resulted just.
So, we shall return to subject matter. It is possible to allocate three types of immortality - personal when the person after death does not disappear and continues in others, outside of human, forms to exist further (christianity, an islam), - immortality without personal type (for example, the Buddhism), representing infinite (under certain conditions final) a circuit of transformations 'I' of the person in different living beings, - immortality as not dying.
Bringing a attention to the question on materialistic understanding an essence of immortality (the objective of the book is those), apparently, it is possible to speak only about last type. But, as it will be visible from the further, the concept of reincarnation, being separated from the religious content, can get quite rational type. Only after that it has not the right to use the habitual name - the reincarnation.
Now once again about the term immortality. It is necessary to recognize, that the the term immortality opens an essence of concept ambiguously. Really, the death exists, and against this fact to object it is not necessary, therefore religious immortality usually is understood as an infinite life after death.
In the same way (that is as the life after death) the term 'immortality' and in the given work will be understood. However the basic instants distinguishing our understanding of immortality from religious, will be either forms, or ways, or both that and another together.
However, it is necessary to tell, that there was a number of publications of quite materialistic sense, for example, Vishev I.V 's monography « the Problem of personal immortality »  where the term immortality is treated in its true sense that is as absence of death, but about it a little bit later.
Let's set, finally, within the limits of the first set of questions (and them still more many) the third, the basic on which the answer will be necessarily given. So, whether there is objectively individual immortality or not?
The materialistic doctrine till recent times concerning both forms of immortality unequivocally and categorically answered "is not present", and concerning the second, without personal, the given answer sounds and now. The religion not so unequivocally, but more or less categorically speaks "yes".
The author, remaining as it considers, on actual ground, too speaks 'yes'. Thus, not excepting the positive answer to a question on the first type of immortality, we speak 'yes', with an referring to the second, without personal type. This short 'yes' we have placed itself in rear position at once to two points of view: religious, for we shall try to give a rational explanation to that till now has extremely religious, mystical interpretation and materialistic for we shall try to prove a reality of that the materialistic outlook while denies (or if to speak more softly, prefers to not make comments).
In similar rear positions, naturally, not maybe
compromises. And, nevertheless, starting disentangling a ball (see an epigraph
to the first chapter), we shall begin … with specification of positions.
The materialism, bringing a attention to the question on death rate of all alive, in, particulars of the person, means death rate of a body – an objective reality which anybody from materialists never cancelled. In relation to the person the materialism is guided by a principle of monism, uniform essence, in this case – unities and indissolubility of a body and 'soul'.
We take away last word in inverted commas. Existence of soul, neither as mystical essence nor as material category, in the materialistic doctrine does not admit. And though between an alive and dead body there is a fundamental difference, supporters of materialism never considered, that the dead body 'turns out' from alive withdrawal of 'soul'.
Simply it is a question of the termination of functions and processes which soul not is. Only for convenience these processes in a daily practice are often designated by this word.
Rather recently in mass media has passed the message that scrupulously verified experiments on weighing alive and the same, but already dead body.
In these experiments as the press informed, were carefully considered possible reduction of weight of a body because of direct and indirect losses of a liquid, gaseous substances, etc.
Nevertheless, deficiency of weight in the mentioned experiments has made the order of three gram. Weight, certainly, small though experimenters were ready to fixing significantly smaller values. While, how much we know, it was not possible to allocate any known material substance which could cover this deficiency.
An existing information are too avaricious, but it is possible to assume, that one of forms of interpretation of the resulted fact will be connected with human soul. The author does not have intention to use any elements or ideas of similar publications for the objectives as models considered in our book do not require it. We do not gather and to enter a debate on the given question as it would withdraw us aside from the main subject matter.
Anybody who are being in senses, will not deny, that the body after death collapses, and, consequently, about any extension of a life in what did not become (or it becomes fast not) to speak it is not necessary.
Provide extension of a life could, perhaps, the immortal soul, or wonderful revival, but existence of these a science does not admit because of absence, in particular, any confirming facts or data.
All, apparently, is clear, and it would be possible to leave this question if … in materialistic treatment of the person (and it in turn will appear connected with a problem of death and, consequently, immortality) at thorough examination did not detect some weak "items" or, if to use the offered M.Mamardashvili  term, – "clearances".
Let's pay attention to these "clearances".
Materialism is traditionally views a person as a unique and unrepeatable entity. It would seem that the way it is - all people are different, both physically and spiritually, and this difference is constantly emphasized and declared. To admit otherwise in this philosophical conception can not be - it is a principle position.
Let's take a reasoning on this account from K.Lamonta's monography « illusion of immortality ':' Thus, if the specific synthesis of germinal cells which are taken place in my case, has not been carried out during a mature life of mine of the father and mother, the possibility of my existence would be for ever excluded, irrespective of, how many millions others synthesis would be carried out before the termination of times … Thus, not only the person of a man depends on a unique combination of genes, but also occurrence of this combination first of all depends on the unique coincidence of circumstances grasping for a long time last times » [8, p.81,82].
The similar train of thought is characteristic not only for K.Lamont; similar reasonings in the given occasion meet not too seldom. Here, please, aphoristic judgement on this account: « I – result of night accident. So we come to the world without the slightest grounds, and we leave with inevitability » [9, p.41].
Consequently, proceeding from the materialistic concept of essence of the person, it is necessary to recognize, that the probability of a birth specific 'I' is insignificant if to think, it in general vanishingly smalll, though all new and new 'I' continue to come into existence. An original lottery in which large prizes are declared only. They are rare, but someone all the same wins.
About uniqueness, to originality of the person speak also many religions, in particular, the christianity, though a background of this uniqueness in theology and in the materialistic doctrine, naturally, are various. It is difficult to us to judge, this concept for theology is how much important. As if to materialism here it is necessary to allocate two instants. Instant the first: uniqueness of the person is caused by originality of external circumstances, including – set of social attitudes; with it, perhaps, it is not necessary to argue.
Instant of the second: the cellular, genic
structure of the person is unique. The science practically confirms also it.
However attempt to connect uniqueness of the human person with originality of a
genotype of the person encounters some, maybe and undistinguished, an
So, a lottery. However in usual lotteries unhappy numbers are known not only advantageous, but also. Who that loser in game, where the rate – the future life? Alas, nobody knows numbers of empty tickets, because it is impossible to know what is not present. In the given situation two assumptions are admissible. The assumption the first. The birth specific "I" should be considered as accidental sample of some set of elements. However the set is not certain at all and consequently the statement of the problem about a choice is represented problematic.
Nevertheless, if to be guided by concept, that each specific life – « gift accidental » (and it is the traditional approach), that, means, its majesty defines the Case and sorts: that is not that, there - not there, early – it is time. Whether accident it? No, here the materialism obviously starts to walk under the handle with some lady.
Really, if I writing this book (the author have dared to lead this reasoning in relation to myself, the reader can act in a similar way), being unique on genic structure, was born on April, 20th, 1932 then why this structure was formed to this date, instead of, say, by June, 6th, 1799 (sorry, for the shown immodesty) or by January, 1st 3175 years? All right, let it was formed to this April date but why it has arisen in the certain geographical item, and, finally, why at this time and in this item this specific person, instead of any another was born. As speak, questions are, there are no answers.
The second assumption. Lotteries are not present, in other words, there are no empty tickets, all of them – advantageous. But in this case communication of a specific genotype with specific 'I' is done extra, and there is admissible more rational interpretation.
'I' am born not, the body in which then there is a person who together with a body and capacity of this body to subjective perception defines 'I' is born. Differently, the formula « I was born » it is necessary to replace with the formula – « who was born, that and I ».
Quite reasonable reasons in occasion of "lottery" are stated in work : « Apparently, exists the reasonable explanation of so improbable our luck consisting the assumption is unique, that the prize falls and on other numbers of a lottery and that the fact of the life, the consciousness should not be connected with a unique genic combination,
realized actually ».
At the given stage of a statement we still do not have special bases for quite unequivocal choice of one of the offered alternatives (though all we traditionally adhere the first point of view), there are only intuitive intentions. However the subsequent conclusions and reasons should force us is well-defined to choose the second way.
We continue the discussion. Since the number of genes and cells in the body is large, the number of possible combinations indescribably huge, but ... still finite, the maximum possible number of us, different people, if not to allow "overlap" is, is the theoretical limit. And this is not the limit, which could be due to degeneration, no - it is something like universal constant, not related to the essence of life.
Limit this practice, apparently, will never be achieved, because the probability of occurrence of two completely identical in their genotype is vanishingly small people: if you stand on the traditional view, it is likely the same order as the probability of a particular person, if This guided by traditional attitudes. Nevertheless, the possibility of the existence of such a limit somehow violates the apparent orderliness of the theoretical constructs of materialism about the human essence. This is not a catastrophe materialist views on this subject, we are not so presumptuous to think that way. Just discovered a small "notch", for which there "hook".
Further, speaking about communication of a genotype of the person with it 'I', we shall consider one more instant. We shall come out with the hypothetical assumption, that at various times on the Earth two were born absolutely identical on cellular and genic structure (let even two) the person.
From the point of view of the detached onlooker it, certainly, different people: at them different, though also similar bodies, and in them – different persons. Now, to speak about 'I' the person, it is necessary to rise all over again on the point of view of one of them, then – another. More 'thin' reasonings, greater attention here be required.
Let's designate first of them (who lived earlier) as the person 'A', another – as the person of 'B'. Needs to be noticed, that « to rise on the point of view » – means, in this case to identify itself with the person 'A', then 'B'.
So, I writing this book, - the person 'A' (the reader also can recommend to expand borders of the imagination). I, as the person 'A', live the life which has been released of this person, and I die. Whether through any time there is a person of 'B'. It is possible to tell, what I shall live now a life of the person In as In differs corporally nothing from 'A', that is to live one more life, naturally, nothing knowing about the first?
Let's consider both of the possible answer. « Yes, I shall live repeatedly a life of the person 'B' ». But at such answer uniqueness of external conditions is ignored: the indispensable requirement becomes unessential. « Is not present, I shall not live repeatedly a life of the person 'B' for it is impossible ». Such answer does excessive the requirement about uniqueness of the material organization.
The obvious contradiction to overcome which it is possible two ways: or to remove a question on existence of by all means rigid communication of the specific person with the specific corporal organization (to deny communication of the person and external conditions it is impossible – it is obvious), or to declare our assumption of identity of genotypes illegal. But in the latter case at once there is not an assumption, and actual circumstance.
It will be a question of genetically similar persons living at a time. Such cases are not so rare, as this one egg twins. Often twins-brothers or twins-sisters live practically in identical conditions.
For the detached onlooker they are different persons, though the every possible funny things caused by their similarity, - an inexhaustible source for draws, jokes, misunderstanding. And the main thing, they never will mix themselves, each of them – 'I'. Here it is not necessary to refer to genic structure, on external circumstances.
Thus, speaking about essence 'I' the person, most likely, it is necessary to mean not so much the specific material nature of an organism, not only results of influence of external conditions and circumstances, and still something another.
It « still something » – capacity of the person to be feeling, perceiving, conceiving subject, the capacity unique to the person – and not to any other essence. Made observation become even more convincing after consideration of some instants.
On the Earth, unfortunately, it is a lot of people who under various circumstances had to go through loss of this or that body, more often external. If to rise on the formal point of view the body has changed, sometimes this 'variation' happens very essential.
As to the person it perceives similar misfortunes differently: one, weak spirit, get various 'complexes', those who is more feasible, courageously experience happened and remain former.
Even if in some cases communication « a body - the person » is observed, it is cleanly external dependence: to get this or that 'complex', it is unessential to lose a leg or an eye. As to 'I', its capacities to be the subject, in general a little that change the mentioned losses.
The given thesis can be developed, having used other example. There live people, also it is a lot of them, lost not external, but internal body; their ability to live is provided either artificial body, or similar, transplanted, for example, from died, the person. And again similar cases are badly correlated with the characteristic of the person, with its capacity to be the subject.
If to finish our assumptions to their logical completion it is necessary to remind, that the material structure of a human body within several years is completely updated, and it in any way (it is possible to express more cautiously – almost in any way) is not reflected in personal qualities of the person, on it 'I'.
One more instant. In psychiatry the phenomenon carrying the name « a syndrome of plurality » persons is described. Its essence consists that in one person alternately there can be some independent persons.
These persons, as a rule, 'are unfamiliar' with each other and can replace each other or with the certain periodicity, or is unpredictable. Each person has the character, the manner to keep, the habits, interests, etc. In fact it is different people, hidden in one corporal envelope.
And the envelope can undergo the certain variations (variation of biochemical reactions, display or disappearance of warts, scars, etc.) depending on what person at present 'is realized' [11, p.27]. The specified syndrome meets seldom enough and concerns to an obvious pathology. In the fourth chapter we shall state our reasons in occasion of the given phenomenon. Here it is mentioned once again to show only ambiguity and mobility of communication of a material body and that we name a personal content of the person.
Now we shall try to connect together all the considered items and to compare with received 'sheaf' to the concept of death 'in a materialistic way', that is – with death of a body. And again we, the truth, already concerning essence of death, meet with any roughnesses.
Really, a major factor defining death of the person, the death of a body, at the same time in definition of essence of the person (set of all public attitudes) it (body) – as though and not the main element is.
These roughnesses do not break the general luster of the theory, they are undistinguished, though are detected not only us: « … we want that or not, but ours, apparently, almost obvious concept about corporal kapsulizatsii of persons as not which isolated and complete essence appears insufficiently adequate » [12, p.38].
However problems of death and immortality are so dramatic, that for their original understanding, maybe, even seeming discords in our today's knowledge of these phenomena should be considered.
By us there is passed still an insignificant part of a way, and a little «nodule» is already noted. It – while only initial attempt 'to shake' our traditional concepts about communication of a matter and consciousness.
On the basis of these concepts communication of essence of the person with a problem of immortality in its present materialistic understanding is obvious enough: as I am unique and unique, means, if my body will disappear, I never again will not be, and about any immortality not maybe speeches.
Even if to admit vanishingly small probability of occurrence of 'repetitions', it is too narrow slot for 'dragging' through it of so dramatic problem.
Thus, according to the traditional materialistic concept, the question on immortality at its practical statement should be connected only with unlimited prolongation of a life of a specific body, that while it is impossible.
Now let us recall, that in occasion of immortality the mentioned lady, that is religion, as well as the author speak « yes, is possible ». The time came to be defined on this question and as it is accepted to speak, be demarcated now. Delimitation with the named lady means. But all over again we shall get acquainted with a position with which she borrows.
Not risking to run into exaggeration, it is possible to approve, that in many religions the idea of immortality plays not less key role, than idea of the God. We shall consider briefly as understand a problem of individual immortality (it us are interests) two of three basic world religions: the Christianity and the Buddhism.
We do not concern here one more world religion – the Islam as the question on immortality is treated in it as in the Christianity though with the differences, important, probably, from the religious point of view, but not basic for our consideration.
Our description if necessary will be superficial, with that degree of detailed elaboration which is necessary for creation only sketches of the general picture. At reading the next lines it is necessary to realize that internal essence of described plots, undoubtedly, more difficultly, and their external surroundings - more richly.
For named and all religions not named here one general sign is characteristic: in them the principle of dualism considering the person as set two essence – bodies and showers is professed (in fact it is a Trinity: a material body and two ideal essences – spirit and soul).
During human life of a soul constantly is in a body and makes with it the indissoluble whole. However, and on this account there is rich enough set of distinctions. For example, in Judaism it supposed, that the soul during a dream leaves a body. Jew, departing to a dream, uplifts to the God a pray: « In your hands I have lodged my soul ». In the morning turns to Supreme words of gratitude: « I Thank you, the Lord alive and eternal, that you have returned soul on the clemency ».
In some branches of the Buddhism the output of soul from a body also is supposed, a so-called, astral output when by means of special exercises it is possible to learn to leave the body and to make fascinating travel at the desire.
After death of the person of a soul or itself leaves a body, or it is withdrawn from it by force. Further in different religions plots somewhere various, somewhere conterminous start to be developed. For atheistically brought up person they, probably, are not so essential.
But we, nevertheless, shall reproduce them on an example of Christian belief to receive even in general a picture of Christian immortality. Here pertinently to note, that any of the mentioned world religions does not insist so on idea of immortality, as Christianity which has arisen as the religion winning death.
According to Christian canons of the two first day of a soul died though has a freedom of movement, as a rule, is about a former receptacle, that is the former body. For the third day (usually put funeral) the soul rises on the sky, and there is its first concept Supreme.
It appears to achieve such audience much easier, than at any terrestrial official. Then the soul within several days gets acquainted with paradise. For the ninth day (the important day in Christian a memorial ceremony) soul the second time appears at the God then it sends on 'excursion' to a hell. Visiting of a hell and acquaintance with it proceeds thirty days, then on the fortieth after death day (again memorial date) the soul for the third time is caused to the Throne.
During this concept there is the so-called private court defining a residence the soul in paradise or a hell down to final, Terrible court. The Christian religion connects time of approach of Terrible court with a doomsday. Timeframe of approach of this event is not specified, usually it is caused by the second coming of the Christ. For example, in Jewish religion this timeframe is defined differently: time of Terrible court will come, when at the God will terminate has reserved the souls which have been saved up at creation of the world. However the mere mortal the information on the sizes of this stock is not available.
Very colourfully in the Apocalypse the picture of Terrible court  is described. Essence of this plot that dead revive. Differently, occurs reunion of the souls was up to it in paradise or a hell, with the former bodies (or it gives new bodies, but same, as before), and above these, already corporal essences is managed final court. Sinners and rithteous persons on a verdict of finsl court as corporal essences, follow to seat of the eternal dwelling.
Thus, immortality Christianly (as well as in èóäàèçìå, an islam) is an eternal afterlife certain fantastic, though also corporal essences, in not which abstract, though also similar on terrestrial, environment. It is important to note, that the soul at Christians during the stay in a next world up to Terrible court and then as a result of reunion with a body after the end of the world keeps features of that person to which it belonged. Here, certainly, it is possible to see many contradictions if to not tell more, but we shall not stop on it.
Essentially the treatment of immortality in religions of the countries of Southeast Asia (the Buddhism, the Hinduism) differs from the Christianity. At all distinctions of these religions (in something even more similar to philosophical doctrines) in relation to a problem of an eternal life they have a number of similar instants.
The main thing consists that the soul after death of the person basically loses its personal features. It can sometimes keep only some sketchy memoirs on the former life which then, at mature age, forget. So, when speech comes about India – « the country of miracles » - it is possible to meet descriptions as authentic such cases when the child sometimes recalls separate elements of the former life. Here, for example, one of them.
« I, Surezh Varma, the owner of shop of the radiogoods in Agra. My wife is called Uma, at us by two children », - speaks five years' Torah, or, what is his name in family, Titus. Thus thin voice the rural little boy unexpectedly gets denser, becomes rather man's. Having heard such for the first time, parents of Titus have apprehended it as overindulgence.
However the boy repeated the story again and again … « Once I came back home from work on the car … Here I have seen two person, running to the car with pistols. Shots were distributed, and one of bullets has got to me in a head … » Then the boy ran into a hysterics, starting to throw in the father and mother plates, speaking, that they not its parents.
Fatally frightened … parents of Titus have gone from the native village Vadh, in 13 kilometers located on distance Agra and have detected, that there certain Surezh Varma, the owner of shop of the radiogoods really lived. Five years ago it has been killed by shots in a head about the house. A name of its widow of Uma, at it two children … The Case with Titus has drawn attention of scientists … Surveyed the boy and have detected strange scar on its right temple. When scientists have familiarized with results of opening of body of Surezh Varma it turned out what exactly in this seat the bullet has got in a head … and has left above the right ear. The big birthmark has been found in this seat at Titus … » [14, p. 38].
That similar plots have really appeared a reality, one condition is necessary, at least: a possibility of information transfer (thus on unknown persons to us to liaison channels) from a brain of the dying person to a brain of any newborn. Such channels to date are not detected, and to us any physical preconditions of are not known that they in general can exist.
In Hinduism the soul after death of a body as though again is born, reincarnates in any other essence, what, in particular, maybe the person. The Buddhism, not accepting existence of soul, also postulates transformation 'I' the person in a circuit of new birthes in new persons. Famous Buddhologist S.F. Oldenburg writes, that « … Indians trust that living beings permanently regenerate that after each death there comes a new life, behind it new death, and so endlessly <…> In full conformity with ancient tradition of Vedic religion the Buddhism unconditionally takes the doctrine about resettlement of souls, or as it is accepted to speak, about transformation: after the given existence right after death or after a while the living being enters in a different shape new life … » (quoted on [15, p. 35, 36]).
Thus, « the ancient Indian philosophy
'overcomes' finiteness of individual existence by means of idea of resettlement
of the souls, doing death basically impossible. As Krishna in 'Mahabharata'
… We were always – I and you, and to all people similar, for ever and ever and onwards we abide … (quoted on )
Beliefs in resettlement of souls have been widespread and among ancient Greeks, and the phenomenon carried the name «metempsychosis». For the description of the same phenomenon the term – 'reincarnation' now is often used. Reincarnation not only is a component of an eternal life, but also as writes I.V.Bestuzhev-Lada referring to a number of the Indian philosophers, in Hinduism « … is proved, that the idea of reincarnation is logically necessary for a background of the theory of evolution » [17, p. 16].
It is important to note, that in the Buddhism of reincarnation within the limits of several terrestrial lives can be very numerous: depending on karma (about karma as some version of fate, destiny we shall talk a little in the next to last chapter) it is possible to reincarnate after death for the future life in various living beings.
« Everything, in opinion of Buddhists, exists six types of regenerations. These types share on two groups – «favorable or blessed rebirth' and 'unhappy, bad fate ». People concern to the first group, Assyrian (malicious spirits) and Tengri (inhabitants of heaven of the lowest order). To the second – martyrs of a hell, animals and Birity (humanoids with a huge stomach and the most thin throat, eternally suffering for famine and thirst) » [15, p. 85, 86].
It is necessary to note, that in the Buddhist concept regeneration in «bad fate» is much more probable, than in «blessed»: « … after death in « bad speed up » returns in it are equal to number of motes the extensive country, and cases of a birth in « happy speed up » are equal to number of the motes taken from a tip of a nail » (quoted on [15, p. 86]).
In the seventh chapter we shall see, that the given statement is quite comparable to the materialistic model of a reproduction described there.
The concept about repeating terrestrial human lives can be met in the system of knowledge called by theosophy (E.P. Blavatskaya, R.Shtajner, etc., see, for example, ). This concept is entered there not in an arbitrary way, and to the contrary, is as though logical consequence of the postulates accepted in theosophy.
These postulates are those: the person is formed to three independent entities – by a body, soul and spirit (or, being expressed by terms of this 'science', - a physical body, a radio body and a body astral). In compliance with this partitioning, the world also breaks up to the sensual material, sincere and spiritual worlds. These last carry also the name supersensual, and by complex image are structured. Through these worlds between each next death and the next birth in a new physical body pass all over again in common soul and spirit, and then – only spirit.
Describing wanderings of soul and spirit on floors of the supersensual worlds, R.Shtajner 'scientific' language in fact tries to do the same, that significantly earlier in more colourful form has been opened' in «Tibetan Book of the Dead» (see, for example, ).
In the corridor of a labyrinth appropriating this section, at the first reading it would be possible to not come, but in connection with conversation on religions of Southeast Asian region it has simply arisen on our way. That we shall see here, is required to us only more close by the end of our travel.
World outlook and philosophical aspects the Hinduism and the Buddhism as complete systems lay away from our subject matter. The certain interest for us can represent only one instant connected with a case in point. It is a question of a meditative practice and psychological aspect of a condition of a nirvana with which terrestrial existence of the person ostensibly comes to an end. As both meditation, and a nirvana – the important components of philosophy the Hinduism and the Buddhism, as some elements of the concept the transformations developed in given religious-philosophical systems,
in something have the general with the model offered further and, finally, as the model of occurrence of consciousness gives impetus to a rational explanation of meditation and a nirvana, we consider it necessary to tell about the last some words.
Strengthens our confidence that we have properly acted, giving meditation in connection with our basic subject matter the certain attention, the following reason belonged V.V. Nalimov: « If want, meditation can be considered as some form of self-hypnosis, using which meditating destroys the personal semantic capsule and sends deep into semantic spaces.
Travelling, it generates new
components of the person, capable to reconstruct and such forms of perception
of the world fundamental to it, as physical existential restrictions. From here
and a possibility of that occurrence, that we perceive as reincarnation memoirs » [12,
p.192, 193]. (About similar sorts memoirs we shall state in the sixth chapter
some our reasons).
The meditative practice (on a Sanskrit - dhyana) takes significant seat in departure of religious practices in religions of the countries of Southeast Asian region. Lately the technics so-called transcendental meditation starts to extend widely in the West.
It is considered, that meditation – the most universal and a powerful method of harmonization of mentality of the person, rendering beneficial influence on all organism. Experiments testify, that regular employment transcendental meditation lead to decrease in arterial pressure and a level of cholesterol, reduce demand for alcohol and tobacco products (sceptics, the truth, can reasonably object, that the last is caused simply by redistribution of time; we shall leave, however, this remark on conscience of sceptics), facilitates a condition at an asthma, migraines, an angina pectoris. At the same time as stable effect the efficiency gain of work and activization of creative activity is marked.
Between the western meditation and east dhyana there are certain distinctions. On European mode meditation is treated as a condition of deep meditation; east dhyana it is possible without any idea, at such condition of mind which would be pertinent for comparing to such mirror which can reflect anything you like, but itself it is invisible.
The condition meditating is subjective is usually characterized by it as a condition of slackness, and the mood is described as raised and in the certain degree released from external influences and internal experiences. Anyway, abundantly clear, that subjective sensations meditating are caused by any special condition of his mentality, his brain.
Here descriptions of subjective impressions two different person, fixed during different temporary epoch, in different geographical points. The first impression: « I went somewhere. Suddenly there was no neither bodies, nor a mind. Everything, that I could feel, was great, shining the whole – uniquitous, accomplished and ennobled.
It was similarly to a comprehensive mirror from which there were mountains and the rivers. My feelings were clear and transparent as though the body and mind have disappeared ». The second impression: « It was feeling unusual. Solemnly and silently in a stream, flowed through me, everything has joined, that there was on the ground, and everything, that could be in the sky. In pleasure, hardly transferable for human heart, I felt so as if harmonous areas, it is sluggish rotating, floated in a worldwide round dance, but through me.
And everything, that I could think or imagine, was covered by exulting unity » (quoted on , p. 38]).
If to compare two these of the text, there is their doubtless similarity: it both a height of style, and sensation of any integrity, unity, and at the same time – not coherence with the actual world. Finally, in the resulted descriptions there are no, in essence, specific forms.
To us it should be clear, that composers of texts wrote them after an output from a condition of deep meditation, and is felt, that they experienced greater difficulties in selection of paints and images for the description of the gone through condition. The author could concern with known scepticism to the presented compositions if myself some times has not tested something similar, the truth, quickly enough and, perhaps, not so deeply. And, nevertheless, it was, yes, it was – something integral and escaping from the realized perception, inexpressible neither a word, nor image. The author cannot tell, that it felt thus any pleasure, but a condition of slackness, languors was.
Use of meditation as means of achievement of religious deliverance is characteristic not only for the Indian or Buddhist yoga. So, in a classical antiquity Platonists used this condition as the necessary precondition for theoretical, in particular, mathematical thinking. Meditation both in Islam, and in Christianity is used. Devoutly praying always are in a condition of meditation.
Now it is brief about some psychological aspects of a nirvana. The nirvana is the complex psychological condition, being the central concept is religious-philosophical doctrines the Buddhism and of some other religions of Southeast Asia. In Buddhist, for example, texts the nirvana is characterized as something incomprehensible and inexpressible. For staying in a nirvana sensations of internal completeness, pleasure, absolute detachment from external life are characteristic.
« The nirvana is reached when have died away all feelings, concepts have disappeared, the consciousness has disappeared – there are no displays of individuality. There is no even a pleasure in occasion of a victory over a sansara (an infinite circle of birthes and death, - B.P.) in which there will be no return. Action of the law of karma is stopped.
The living being, unlike doctrines of other religions, does not find a new eternal life in any other unearthly area of life, and forever gets rid of any form of life, and that and sufferings. A nirvana – full nonexistence » [21, p. 35]. If to take this, psychological, a side of a nirvana and to compare to meditation from this point of view between them detects much in common. Probably, it is possible to tell, that the condition of a nirvana is the deepest, probably, any extreme form of meditation.
Very essential feature of Christian personal immortality (as well as immortality in an Islam) on which in the atheistic literature devoted given subject matter, it is given, in our opinion is not enough attention, consists that Christian immortality is postponed, i.e. it while is not present, it takes place in the future, after the end of the world.
The assumption that soul of died exist now in a hell or paradise, for us, alive, any role (if to exclude religious belief) does not play, for neither material, nor information communication with a prospective next world is not present. Some data, ostensibly calling in question last statement, will be analysed in the sixth chapter.
In the specified feature – display of the certain logic of a background of immortality. The daily reality uncompromisingly approves, that the death exists. Consequently, the postulate on immortality can become fair if it to carry to other times not observable directly – future or for a long time the past.
Actually, according to the Bible the first people have been created by the God immortal, and only then in punishment for infringement of an interdiction have been deprived this divine privilege. Now the Christian divinity carries immortality to the uncertain future. Similar position – unique for a background of Christian immortality, and it not maybe any other, as immortality personal.
The eternal life as a circuit of reincarnations unlike the considered Christian immortality, is not postponed. According to postulates the Hinduism and the Buddhism it exists in the form of reincarnations as though already now.
Proceeding from similar postulates, there is impossible a background of visible reincarnation of the same person, for a daily reality observable by us does not confirm such reincarnation. But if reincarnation exists now the people now living, naturally, require visible confirmings of this fact: from here, in our opinion, the 'unknown' image appear sometimes 'memoirs' on the last life; the example of one of which has been resulted above.
The logic of construction of the postponed immortality (in sense of its background) is more faultless. Probably, because of such vulnerable logic of a background, the eternal life on the basis of reincarnation by many people, including atheistically conceiving, concerns to the category more primitive, not deserving a close attention.
So, if to address to deep essence of immortality « on religious », " in an idealistic way ", that should be ascertained, that it consists in temporal to transfer from one carrier to another not which non-material and constant essence named by soul or other transcendental term.
Thus it is important to note, that this essence in many religions is strictly individual and makes, in essence, a basis of the person. Materialism, despite of separate roughnesses of the explanation of absence of individual immortality (what it has been mentioned above), undoubtedly, the rights, denying existence of soul and kingdom of God. In it of its critic of immortality "in a religious way" it is absolutely fair.
A little in another way it is necessary to concern to Buddhist treatment of an eternal life. As it was already spoken, the Buddhism does not accept existence of soul, and immortality (its terrestrial part) in it is treated as a circuit of transformation (reincarnation) human 'I'.
« The early Buddhism answered a question on existence of soul: the soul does not exist in that sense as ordinary people and representatives of other religious currents understand it. But 'truly real' in each person which shapes all regenerations and which ultimate goal calm in a nirvana, it was never denied by any direction of the Buddhism.
And than, how not original interpretation of soul, maybe it « truly real » the Buddhism, operated by the law of karma? … » [15, p. 89]. « The visible western expert on the Buddhism T.V.Rhys Davids, that, having refused faith in soul, the Buddhism has been compelled to look for « a connecting link » in the doctrine of karma.
Under this doctrine, as soon as the essence lit up by feelings (the person, an animal, an angel) die, there is a new essence in more or less burdensome material condition of life, by karma, fault or a merit, the died essence » (cited on [21, pp. 32]).
Let's quote still: « Concept about a soul-stream, about a soul as « continuity of eternally changing individuality » or absence of concept about the soul directly connected only with the given specific person, - the ideas which are peculiar not only the Buddhism. In this respect last does not differ basically from many primitive religions according to which doctrine, soul of the deceased, come back to the ground, being installed usually in a body of the relative or the descendant of the died person. These early religious concepts, having passed through the Brahmanic doctrine about resettlement of souls, have received original refraction in the Buddhist theory of regeneration » (cited on [21, with. 32]).
Here for us it is important to consider sense of words 'regeneration', 'transformation' and at all it is so much sense, how many their grammatic form. The prefix 'feather' in this case has following sense: something, remaining constants in the intrinsic basis, accepts shape new, changed, something mystical is passed in time and space from one alive body to another. However the fact of transfer shows something 'mechanistic', and in it one more element of primitiveness, in our opinion, is shown.
Nevertheless, in the same Buddhism the aspiration to leave from that primitive interpretation is traced, that we have connected with a mere verbiage, having a prefix 'feather' in what it is easy to make sure, having read through the following statement: « Characterizing Buddhist doctrine about regeneration, O.O.Rosenberg (one of pre-revolutionary experts on the Buddhism,-.) wrote: « So,
Under the doctrine of the Buddhism each person, with all that it is and thinks, with all its internal and an external world, there is anything other, as a temporary combination without initial and infinite components, as though a tape weaved on a known extent from without initial and infinite strings. When that we name death comes, the fabric with the certain pattern as though is untangled, but the same not breaking strings incorporate again, the new tape is made of them, with a new pattern. Uncountable strings – Dharmas (Dharmas in the Buddhism – primary elements of life and psychophysical elements of ability to live of the person, - B.P.), from which the given person is weaved, those longitudinal strings which in a fabric incorporate that in in other pattern make as though a bunch of strings, as though 'basis' of a fabric: any cannot enter into other basis, in the another's person who is the same isolated combination of strings ». The Buddhist doctrine about regeneration not is resettlement of soul in a new body, « it is literally regeneration, the same strings which have created Peter, together with its body, with its world, will be Ivan, with its body, and its world » (cited on [22, p. 20]). We recommend the reader to pay attention to this citation: it will be commented in the sixth chapter.
Though, as it has noted been above, the concept of reincarnation is included the important component into some religions, the idea on existence of the previous and subsequent lives can occur to any, not to necessarily religious person. This idea is characterized as though by revelation, more often it comes at children's age when there were no yet stable stereotypes about life and death.
Feature of this idea – in absence for it a verbal equivalent which would allow to express it, instead of something other, banal enough. It, more likely, an idea-image, thus the image deprived certain form, reminding imperceptible, there and then disappearing association with something, also imperceptible, almost not realized. To us occurrence of such idea not incidentally, in it is thought, that the certain reflection of intrinsic bases of our consciousness, probably, is shown.
Comparison of the immortality accepted in Christian religion, with a possibility of existence of following lives on Buddhist, for example, shows religions, that the first type of immortality for the faithless person should be represented more fantastic as in knowledge of such immortality take place, at least,
two supernatural elements: soul and a next world. Religious knowledge of existence of following terrestrial lives assume availability of really actual elements (the person in this and in a following life), however, connected by a supernatural sheaf – reincarnation. We shall dare to quote G.K.Chesterton's taken from its book one statement « the Eternal person » . « Reincarnation - completely not mystical idea; in effect, it cannot be named even religious idea. The mysticism assumes though any knowledge of the beyond … But reincarnation repeats many times our local, terrestrial experience ». Now we have approached to the important point of our statement consisting directed by the following below a question …
Having discussed religious plots of immortality and having recognized them not realness because of that absence that could exist permanently (for example, a soul) and to be passed in time, as well as, having considered a sight of materialism at this problem, we shall change some angle of vision and we shall ask such question: « As the materialistic model of immortality could look, if this phenomenon all the same existed or could exist? »
The very first answer which occurs: as much as long existence of an individual body.
Not we shall pay attention while to that fact, that the body as an alive organism cannot exist unlimited time, and we shall take advantage of our knowledge of for the present modest achievements of a science in the field of implantation of external and internal bodies.
Extrapolation of these results in the future allows to speak, most likely, about a possibility of prolongation of individual lives and to do them practically unlimited if to admit a possibility of implantation at a cellular level. It has been above mentioned, that the cell is identified not on the nuclear structure and consequently perception the subject (as well as the sensation of the fact of the life) though is defined by functioning of a body and its bodies, but at the same time does not depend on specific material structure of an organism.
The given statement becomes even more convincing if to recollect, that within 7-10 years the cellular structure of an organism is completely updated. Thus, the similar model of immortality is quite materialistic. It can have the variations, for example, separate bodies of a body (and maybe, and all!) will 'be designed' by implantation not natural, alive, and artificial cells. Or the former body will resume with a method of cloning.
Other interpretation of this idea and as consequence – other 'technical' realization of personal immortality is possible. If processes and functions of a brain – an essence transformation, deleting, reconstruction and storage of the information basically it is possible to speak about record of the 'brain' information on intermediate inorganic carriers and its carry to other brain.
However similar ways of realization of immortality, at least, at the given stage, are not so interesting to us owing to two reasons. First, ideas of such immortality it is trivial are simple and in any way do not open essence of its contrast – death.
Secondly, technical realization of these ideas, to the contrary, is extremely complex and it is yet known – whether the aspiration to similar immortality is justified. (in the given occasion other point of view is stated to I.V.Vishev in its monography , but, it appears, that time for a debate has not come yet.)
So, refusing existence of immortality 'in a religious way' (something mystical is passed in time and space), leaving behind frameworks of the book trivial (as a matter of fact, instead of on realization) immortality as a life though and updated, but all the same the same bodies, and, consequently, the same persons, we shall make attempt to construct one more, quite materialistic, model of an eternal life. It to us « will cost nothing » because, apparently, it is already realized by the nature. But to approach to an essence of this model, and we shall come close to it stage by stage, we shall consider a following plot.
About some vital metamorphosises
Imagine such situation: how many years ago, even before perusal of these lines, in your life have occured abrupt crisis.
All has changed – the satellite or the girlfriend lives, city or even the country of your residing, friends, you began to profess, if you the believer, other religion, the image of your life has essentially changed, by means of plastic operation you have changed your appearance, etc., etc. Everything has changed, apparently, and is clear, that such changes do not pass without serious consequences. However one remains is yours 'I' which can feel this morbidity. You can compare yourselves former and present, estimate a degree occurred with you metamorphosises and, nevertheless, conclude, that before and after is all your 'I'.
Now leave area of assumptions and address to yourself such what you are, - and it again your 'I'.
Let's shift in the considered vital collision an instant of its occurrence for the period of the early childhood. We shall admit, a certain child was born in family with the limited material possibilities (by the way, is the most typical case if it to consider in scale of all mankind for children will be born both in palaces, and in huts, but immeasurably it is more than last), grew up in an adverse social environment, has not managed (or has not wanted), having matured to be pulled out from this environment and as a result it was realized as very limited person.
Now we shall admit, that the same child even in unconscious infancy has appeared in the environment, differing a material prosperity (the hackneyed plot of many works of art) both rich with cultural and moral traditions. Most likely, this child, having matured, is realized as other person who is distinct from discussed above.
And how to be from it 'I', with its subjective capacity of perception of life? The specific child described by us cannot really live two lives to make comparison of the 'I', developed in different conditions as it is was offered for making above a little to the reader. But that is impossible actually, is admissible to carry out mentally.
The materialistic treatment of the person which are starting with uniqueness of genic structure of the person and its private world, induces to do in this case unique, logically consistent conclusion. It will be the same 'I', because objectively a genotype of the child (and then and the adult person) in the offered plot the same. As to uniqueness of private worlds (and they in both cases essentially differ), the private world of the person according to the same materialistic treatment is reflection (and no more) in his head of the world external. If to admit, what an external world, being reflected in a head of the subject, changes its capacity to perceive this external world and including (i.e. internal 'I' change it as though), why it could not occur in case of offered before a collision of a vital way of the adult person?
To not run into the contradiction, it is necessary to recognize, that a private world of the person as reflection of the world external is valid, it is unique (from here – uniqueness of the person), but this reflection cannot change a certain intrinsic basis which we name capacity to subjective perception of and an external world (for brevity – the subjective beginning). From here capacity of perception of as realities – the internal property of human mentality resulting action any immanent human nature of mechanisms. In the subsequent chapters we shall try to prove not only a reality of existence of these mechanisms, but also to open their information nature.
Naive, but tricky question
The plots resulted above with metamorphosises and collisions were necessary for us with one objective: to force the reader to give a thought on essence of the "I": whether it is valid is unique and unique or in it, alongside with existence of a unique part, there is the certain constant which is not subject to time and circumstances?
Writing of these lines we, undoubtedly, have placed itself in a vulnerable position in relation to critical statements from the experts adhering on this account of other point of view. However other output at us is not present: the internal logic of materialistic model of eternal life offered further forces to make this step.
So, an eternal life on the basis of transfer on axis of time of soul as a baton, it is impossible because the soul as such "stick" does not exist. The material biological body also (at least while) cannot exist eternally. So, maybe, there is any other baton?
Give, change point of view and shall look at immortality as on capacity of the subject (and it exists objectively) constantly to perceive the life, and, consequently, and life of the world surrounding it. In this case we have, what the subject is not constant, and the perception of life is constant? A nonsense!
Let's allocate all over again for consideration a word 'constantly': it here in the certain sense arbitrarily as the person perceives life by the portions divided by conditions of a dream dreamless, a narcosis, possible faints and which at whom, as they say, do not give the God, - instants of clinical death. But if intermittence of availability at the subject of consciousness – not the basis for refusal of concept « a constancy of perception of life » we shall try, proving 'inconstancy' of the subject to set as though naive but as it will appear, a tricky question.
Whether instead of can in a number of the mentioned unconsciousnesses interrupting a continuity of perception of the existence, to get and death which too is connected with loss of consciousness?
Naivety of a question is concluded as though in ignoring the obvious fact: as a result of awakening after a dream there is" a same subject, and after approach of death the same subject cannot "arise". And consequently because of naivety of a question the answer is obvious: certainly, cannot.
But our question as it has been told, has also the tricky side, consisting that it because of the naivety has provoked us on immediate, apparently, unequivocally negative answer. However we shall concern to a question more closely.
If to mean Buddhist transformation "I" then still it is possible to consider, that "something" from died "reincarnates" in "something" at born, and the constancy of perception of life is as though kept. But we in the model have vigorously refused all such, that is maybe characterized by a noun with a prefix "feather": transition, moving, transfer, regeneration, transformation, etc. But if there can not be" a same subject any another can? Apparently, yes, as result of a birth of the new person.
For the further unusual enough concept – « a copy of the person », concept absolutely unacceptable for religion is required to us. A copy of the person – an invention of visionaries. But we are not going to design entertaining fantastic plots, and the concept of a copy of the person is required to us for construction though also conceivable, but quite admissible situations if want, models. Therefore we shall define this concept. The copy of the person and its original on the outside, morphologically, as well as on a genotype are identical each other.
Are identical also their subjective to essence. The term "identical" here quite is maybe replaced by a turn – precisely same. We do not bring a attention to the question here how this identity to receive, and we define only.
Apparently, that if in any point in time there is an original and a copy in the subsequent instants their isomorphism should be broken, at least, owing to two reasons. First, by virtue of the materiality they borrow various areas of space, and this distinction will inevitably lead to distinctions in their behavior.
Secondly, spontaneously arising various internal promptings of the original and a copy also will lead to infringement of their isomorphism. Thus, the concept of isomorphism of the original and a copy is an one-stage concept, but of our constructions it is not required to consider simultaneous existence of a copy and the original. For us the question on similarity of following two situations is important.
Situation the first: the behaviour of the original on a temporary piece from t up to t1 in some fixed point of space is considered. A situation the second, connected with return again to a starting point t, reception often used in the theory of automatic devices. In an instant t in the same point of space the original is replaced with a copy created in the same instant t, also the behavior of a copy up to an instant t1 is observed. We have all the bases to consider, that behavioral reactions in both situations will be identical, and, consequently, the original and a copy in an instant t1 for the first and, accordingly, should be identical to the second situation each other. However, given statement is fair at performance of two important conditions: the first – to a original and to a copy is not informed on the fact of the substitution, the second – the considered system including in the first situation the original, in the second – a copy, as well as environment surrounding them, represent isolated system, in which accidental processes in fact are pseudo-accidental. Certainly, the described situations are abstract. But for us it is important to not look through at this abstract level of any logical contradictions we while for build only abstract model of an eternal life.
Let's return to our subject and we shall state a following question. What will change, if instead of one perceiving subject on axis of time consistently to arrange some such subjects (spears)? We shall estimate a situation developing in this case. If, for example, during a dream the person is replaced with its absolutely precise copy from the point of view of has occured experimental nothing (we shall remind, that experimenters are able to hold language behind a teeth), and it assumes the existence continuous. In offered mental experiment it is considered, that further "destiny" of the original we are not interested.
Anything, in effect, does not change, if the specified substitution to carry out under the attitude not to fallen asleep, and to died (for example, from illness) to the person. In this case, the truth, supposed, that a copy created, naturally, to death of the original and shipped for the time being in a dream, should have hidden, but essential to overcoming an illness distinctive feature. As the person cannot subjectively perceive an instant of approach of death, just as it is not capable to catch an instant of the falling asleep "person-copy" will be quite satisfied by the message, that it has fallen asleep or has lost consciousness, and, consequently, for it subjectively perceived constancy of life though the fact of death objectively took place takes place.
Thus, the first and main difficulty has been overcome: for eternal life in terms of continuity of the subjective perception of being no need for the continuous existence of the same essence, say, body or soul. Instead of the same substance it can act consistently several of a few same essence.
In the given occasion it is not out of place to recollect simple, but a wise national fairy tale on how the hare competed with a hedgehog in run. The hare, like mad, rushed from one edge of a field to opposite but as soon as it reached seat, because of bush there was a hedgehog and spoke: « And I already here! ».The inscrutable hare did not know, that was two hedgehogs – it thought, that the hedgehog was one.
We needed to make a following, not less responsible step in construction of our materialistic model of an eternal life - to inhale it a life, otherwise, first, to replace in model an abstract copy with the actual person (this person, certainly, there should be a newborn); secondly, instead of abstract isolated system, where all is determined or, as a last resort, pseudorandomly to pass by an actual life over which its majesty the Case dominates. Who is born by a woman? Certainly, the person who has incorporated a certain integrated quantity of the human properties strung on the general vital string is born? The human nature is those, that it creates 'copies' most naturally. Whether copies it in that understanding how it was required for our model?
The mind-reader should understand, that destiny of the rate, staked immortality, depends on the answer to this question. We shall answer "yes" – and basic difficulties behind, there are only "technical" details; we shall answer "is not present" – the model falls, as a house of cards, and hardly it is possible to construct another.
Absolute similarity of people – conditional concept; naturally, each person is unique also something differs from any to itself 'similar'. At the same time the offered model of an eternal life provides availability at not which each person of constant essence, thus not any minor for the given model (for example, five fingers on a hand or two eyes, etc.), and establishing, defining the status of human consciousness, his 'I'. This constant essence, arising each time at a birth of the new person, also should create constantly sensation I, as realities. In the subsequent chapters it will be shown, that mentioned « constant essence » – not author's concoction.
Thus, not having for an embodiment of immortality of a possibility of artificial creation of a copy of the person, we can 'console' themselves in that copies of the brain mechanisms providing occurrence of capacity of the subjective beginning, are created in an actual life permanently by means of the natural mechanism of reproduction.
Transition from the abstract isolated system in which abstract original and a copy operated, by an actual life brings a basic corrective amendment in a considered picture: in abstract model at uncountable copies we had in fact personal immortality; in reality immortality becomes impersonal. Differently, existence on behalf of newborn children of spears (we shall use further the term of reproductions) quite proves actual, objective existence of a phenomenon of an eternal life as cyclically repeating and dynamically changing from elementary to more complex inside of each cycle of capacity to subjective perception of and world around. Boundless, individual life each time in an image of person again shaped in a new body, each time in new, novel and, nevertheless, the old world.
When I, the author of these lines (here, really, it it is more convenient to pass to the first person) shall die, for me it will be as though falling asleep after which necessarily there will come as though awakening. But it will be the awakening having two properties, distinguishing it from usual awakening after a usual dream (therefore we and name it « as though awakening »). First, it will be similar to the occurrence which is taken place in the childhood of everyone; secondly, I shall remember nothing (the more precisely, I shall not know) that was with me before this awakening. 'I' in first half of phrase « when I the author … » and 'I' in the beginning of a following phrase « … I shall remember nothing … » is 'I', belonging different persons but as subjectively perceived and perceiving reality is one 'I'.
Now we can come out with the following assumption: that the model of impersonal immortality "worked", availability of structure of human consciousness is necessary. However, we yet do not know, that such consciousness (about it is speech ahead), but to us it is already clear, that it should consist, at least, of two parts – a constant and a variable.
One part – a variable caused by the genic nature of the specific person, features of the social environment in which he lives, quite satisfies to the actual fact – uniqueness of the human person. Further we, already at other level, shall track, as the model of this originality and as it (originality) could correspond with a problem of human consciousness and with a problem of subjectively perceived immortality is realized.
Other part, identical at all people, also is that reproduction which should in offered model to provide a constancy of perception of life. This immanent to each person the property caused by structure of its brain which we name « capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning » and which in borders of existence of this capacity is identical at each person and is reproduced naturally.
In this part of the book we are yet ready to approve, that the mentioned two parts of consciousness really exist. We simply ascertain: if the consciousness has been structured in the specified sense the offered model of subjective immortality could exist really. With all definiteness it must be said, that the model of an eternal life designated here does not define immortality as those, that is denying death: in the given model the death is present, and at it the deep philosophical sense, probably, is concluded. In the offered model refer two dialectic contrasts – death and a new life. From this point of view for the given phenomenon the term "immortality" as we earlier have noted, not at all is successful. However, not excepting concepts « eternal life », we shall use also this term, always with an eye to not absence of death, and something similar for a life after death.
There is passed one more part of a way. Having rejected the eternal life offered by theology and theosophy, we "have thought up" the model of immortality as sequence of usual human lives. This model assumes special "arrangement" of consciousness. We yet do not know, whether so it "is arranged", and in general, that such consciousness. However clearly one – in effect consciousnesses is hidden that we should understand.
It would be disrespectful to the idea of immortality if through ten pages after its announcement it would be understood by all; for this purpose, maybe, there is not enough perusal of the book. Besides we are not assured what to understand – means to accept. Not trivial ideas begin not with processions on the triumphal areas, their destiny – slow procrawling on maze of gyri. The idea on a continuity of perception of life in case of death of the subject actually is unexpected and so difficult for rational understanding, alien for a habitual way of thinking, that it is obviously necessary to us besides stated above theses to offer still any analogy, to come close to understanding the given model.
When speak about subjective, often use concept 'point of view': my point of view, the point of view John Doe, etc. We shall take advantage of 'point of view', making a start from physical and geometrical sense of this concept. People are points. The more precisely they are born points (excuse for a tautology), as a point is elementary simple. In a consequence they, becoming complicated, turn as though to the various closed figures: circles, ellipses,squares, asterisks, triangles and etc. On a boundless plane of a life each point (in the further we shall name its central point) or the figure has the and only the coordinates concerning some 'world' system of readout, and they remain constants from the moment of occurrence of the central point, at a stage of its growth up to a figure (in this case with the central point of a figure it is identified, for example its center of symmetry), and before disappearance of a figure. We can admit cases of moving of the central point within the limits of a figure belonging it. The assumption it is done for the sake of satisfaction to sense of one often used phrase which will be resulted below.
Absolutely precisely on seat of the center of symmetry disappeared figures we regard occurrence of a new central point as event, almost improbable. In our analogy it would conform to a repeated birth of an absolute copy. It is not necessary to mix moving us, ordinary alive people, in our ordinary three-dimensional space with possible movings on an imagined plane of a life; on it each element takes the constant seat at all stages of the existence.
Let's continue consideration of analogy. After 'birth' the central point starts to expand in a certain figure. Here one more condition. It can seem to much weak point of analogy, but we, naturally, do not apply for its perfection. It is a question of that each expanding figure has initially such vital space, that, expanding to not borrow space of adjacent figures. It is clear, that here the neighbourhood has no directly municipal shade. It is possible to connect occurrence of new system of coordinates with each central point, in which coordinates of set of points of an expanding figure are counted from its accepted center, i.e. – from the central point. Now – comparisons. The form of a figure, its sizes are a hereditary luggage and social experience of the person.
Comparison is pertinent: probably forming a specific figure it is caused by those at adjacent figures but so that the indispensable condition was not broken – figures should not be crossed. Designated by us as the center of a figure a point (i.e. 'point of view') in any instant strikes root the given figure for the center of coordinates of ' a plane of a life ». Now all is counted from this center: everything, that does not belong to 'my' figure, is an external world, on which at 'me', as distinct from all other figures is the 'own' point of view. Points belonging 'my' figure – 'my' private world, «is mine I ». Still the condition – 'sight' from the local center can get for limits of borders of the figure into any zone of ' a plane of a life », except for internal zones of other figures.
Let's connect the offered geometrical model with a phenomenon of subjective immortality or a phenomenon of eternal life. Figures different, their site on « a plane of a life » a miscellaneous, instants of occurrence of points and disappearances of figures are various. All this so conforms to uniqueness and originality of the person. Immortality requires a constancy, similarity of any elements defining essence of a life. Where they, these elements? First, the fact of occurrence of a point: in fact it could not appear. It is necessary for us, that all over again there was a point, instead of something other. Means, behind occurrence of a point there is a certain, same physical essence: occurrence of a point is caused by something.
The point, in our opinion, in the given analogy, is capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, and all points are identical. Further, secondly, all points have an identical capacity to expand in figures (let and different). And, finally, thirdly, for all considered « planes of a life » on which there are figures, there is a same metrics (the metrics is some mathematical characteristic of space.– B.P.). Instead of a plane it would be possible to take, for example, a surface of area, but for it the metrics, the truth already another, it is kept. Each perceiving center 'is adjusted' on the same metrics. Therefore carry of a perceiving point to other seat of vital space changes nothing.
As the physicist, the system of coordinates connected with the central point, invariant to its moving on « planes or area of a life » would tell in this case. Differently, all the laws existing in such system of coordinates, all processes, in it proceeding, do not change at its moving concerning world system. Proceeding from this analogy, it is possible to tell, that capacity to subjective perception of life at all people is identical. As the local centers are invariant, the central point cannot tell in what in some detail to system it is. About a phrase « my point of view on … Now is a little has changed ». In a life often happens such. It also is displacement of the perceiving center inside of the figure. The center of coordinates, from it displaced was displaced, all sees differently, but property of invariancy of the central system of coordinates thus does not change.
We would not like, that the described analogy was perceived as attempt of the proof of validity of the thesis about a continuity of subjective perception of life in case of death of the subject. If such attempt to make it is possible to set of questions which only will destroy sense of this analogy.
For example, at an assumption of the various metrics in each point of ' a surface of a life » we shall come to the statement opposite admitted. Therefore the offered analogy – only descriptive model. The certain type of "proof" of validity of reproductive model will be developed in following chapters for now once again we shall remind of an example with a vital metamorphosis.
In this example structure of human consciousness, availability in it both by a constant, and a variable of making parts just as in geometrical analogy of a point figures, from them "growing" are identical, and is obviously guessed, are various.
The reproductive model of subjective immortality (more precisely it can be named « immortality on the basis of a reproduction of constant capacity to sensation of the reality ») is based extremely on quite actual reasons, without attraction of supernatural attributes.
For a background of a reality of a similar type of immortality understanding true essence of human consciousness is important. The subsequent three chapters also will be devoted to consideration of this question. In them the impatient reader wishing as soon as possible and is more to learn about immortality, in fact never will meet this word. But these of the chapter include that information, ideas and comparisons which will allow us to translate immortality from a rank of mental model by what it is presented in the given chapter, in the status of a scientific hypothesis.
Chapter 3. Approaching abstract
Who made me hostile power
Out of nothingness called,
My soul filled with passion,
Mind with doubts stirred?
Recollect, the reader as you were born, arising from nonexistence. No, it is a question not of a birth, we do not remember it, though precisely we know, that cabbage and storks here there is nothing. We speak about occurrence from nonexistence. First – any inconsistent, not connected with seat and time of a sparkle the consciousnesses which have remained in our memory for all life. Interestingly that in these memoirs of the earliest childhood, as a rule, there are no ourselves: we remember something, but then we did not understand, that it we (I, you, it, it), understanding has come later. One step at a time, to years to five-six, memoirs become more integral, we can specify a scene of action, still we give a thought on ourselves as about the subject of action more few. All this will come later and there is our consciousness, to ours "I".
So such « ours I », whence it has arisen, what mechanisms if they are, have started it in what the essence of our consciousness where we disappears "I" when the organism dies, whether disappears it in general? Here the questions fundamental to a science, art, religion, for a household level of perception of each person.
What's the matter? Why there is in the world nothing closer to us on the availability and more distant for understanding, than consciousness. If in its basis – transcendental laws either their displays, or transcendental will then its incomprehensibility is clear. But « … if the consciousness really is function highly organized matters why till now there was no model, explicatied this statement? » [12, p.7]. Alternatives two, and an output at us one – to accept a call.
In recent years in connection with rapid development of computer science and computer facilities not less violent progress is observed in the field of the knowledge, named « problems of an artificial intellect ».
Apparently, in borders of the decision of these problems and if is wider, within the limits of methodology of the general theory of systems , it is possible to try to find answers to the questions put above. Not applying at all on the final decision (whether under force it is to one person?), we shall come out with some assumptions, providing a way if to not solve the put questions, then to promote in the necessary direction.
Now many divide regulations about volume, that from the point of view of principles of its functioning it is possible to compare with a brain of the person with complex, even the extremely complex information system.
Let's result only one of many confirmings this idea: « … the treatment of the mental phenomena as the information processes which are carried out by a brain, opens wide methodological possibilities for development of a problem « consciousness and a brain » [3, p.19]. This system has (the some people consider, that has no) the certain algorithm (or set of algorithms) functioning. In the fourth and fifth chapters the reader still should adjoin to complex mathematical concept of algorithm a little.
However to it will be enough basically the intuitive, simplified understanding of algorithm as certain, final sequence of rules, carrying out which final number of times, it is possible to receive the solution to the problem.
Evolution of model
That it is better to present model of functioning of the information system similar to a brain, we shall consider possible stages of evolution of model of biological system from simple to complex. First of all, it must be said, that the model of any biological organization which are being conditions of the actual physical world, should stay in information-power interoperability with this world. The most simple model has only two channels. One channel entrance on which information-power influence, for example the bunch of light, arrives at an input of model. Other channel (too information and energy) represents reaction to entrance influence, those, for example, maybe moving of model from light space on more dark site.
Figure 1 The simplest model
For the readers who have got used to dry language of drawings and diagrams, the elementary model is shown on fig. 1 in the form of the model accepted by cybernetics of " a black box » in which to us it is not known (or us internal "stuffing", an arrangement of this box (in picture – information model of an alive organism does not interest)).
To the researcher the information on an input (for an alive organism this influence of an environment) and an output of model (with reference to an alive organism it is necessary to consider as the target information various reactions of an organism) is available only. Language of concept of the information in the world surrounding us is inexpressiblly rich and practically is boundless, though we know not too many ways of information transfer.
These are various oscillatory processes: a sound, light, radiowaves; a different sort of radiation: thermal, radiating; various fields: gravitational, magnetic, electrostatic (lately began fashionable to speak about biofields). The information can be transferred by a stream of particles, mechanical influence, etc.
Each living being is capable "to understand" any particle of language of the nature. Only in borders of this information environment the organism can function effectively.
For example, some elementary organisms (and not only they, certainly) are allocated by capacity to respond to an orientation of a magnetic field; but, how many do not read to an amoeba the Bible, it does not become from it to the believer. Let religious people will not find similar comparison by blasphemy – the author wished to emphasize only a pettiness of the first and greatness of the second.
In model on fig. 1 there are only two channels of information transfer. On first of them the information acts in model from an environment. The target channel – observable reactions which can be: acceleration or delay of movement, variation of its direction, etc.
In the elementary model availability of very limited characteristics of entrance both target channels and rather simple way of transformation of the entrance information in target supposed, thus, most likely, it eventually does not change.
In what direction the elementary model could evolve? It is necessary to mean, that reaction as soon as it is carried out, becomes not only property of model, but also as though a part of an environment as reaction is the attitude arising between model and environment of its dwelling.
More viable so, and accomplished the model is represented, capable the given attitude to perceive, that conforms to occurrence of the channel of a feedback (fig. 2). The model possessing a feedback, receives the new quality named by memory that allows it to be trained. Training – the important quality enabling model is better to adapt for changing conditions of an environment.
Fig.2 The simplest model with feedback
Feedback – great 'invention' of the nature. Some words, preceding as though resembling about the reasons for its occurrence, cannot be named even by pathetic leptons put by us on an altar of the Nature. But to add, in essence, there is nothing more.
As the justification it is reasonable to refer on authority: « … as if to feedback mechanisms, … which are inherent in all alive their occurrence and today remains a mystery » [21, p. 88].
Till now the accent was done on power influence on model. However each such influence has the borders of variation of intensity, various influences can alternate in the certain natural sequence or accidental image. The model, consequently, appears not only in power, but also in the information environment.
The further progress of model is maybe connected with enrichment of language of concept of the entrance information and language of reactions, that leads in turn to complication of rules (and, consequently, structures) transformations of the entrance information in target.
As 'life' of model proceeds in mixed power and information to environment, probably, that more stable to factors of such environment there are such models which are capable to spend power and information influences on different 'departments'. In this connection at the certain stage of evolution in model there can be new operating special-purpose structures which should be correlated with occurrence in an organism of a site of the body called by a brain. The information model of such organism is presented on fig. 3.
Fig.3 A simple model with the brain
We shall not be asked here by a question why a direction of evolution of the organisms, got a brain, it has appeared more perspective, than hypothetical evolution of brainless essences or fantastic essences with many brains.
The general principles of construction of artificial cybernetic systems suppose existence of arrangements, as with central, and distributed management. An example of the last are the matrix structures, homogeneous systems of automatic devices, multiprocessing systems, etc.
Apparently, the brain is not system with the central management, most likely, it should be carried to distributed to the system consisting of set of in parallel working "processors". However, considering a brain as uniform information and operating system, it is necessary to note, that the nature has gone on such way when one organism is conformed with one brain. However, the opening connected with asymmetry of hemispheres of a human brain, allow to ask a question, whether really one brain at the person.
Perhaps, their two, working in pair? But it is other question, while it is more convenient to us to be guided by the traditional approach. The model shown on fig. 3 though possesses a brain, but under the qualitative characteristics essentially does not differ from previous model, and it should be considered as transitive on a way to following, more perfect, represented on fig. 4.
Fig.4 The model with the brain of the first type
In process of complication of functions of a brain, escalating of its structure and an increase of weight it becomes more and more isolated part of a body which, eventually, becomes for a brain as though an environment. Therefore there are specific channels 5 and 6 (see fig.4) which role is to some extent similar to a role of channels 1 and 2 accordingly, but only not in relation to an environment surrounding model of an organism, and in relation to a body as to an environment for a brain.
Channels 5 and 6 is a typical feedback between a body and a brain. It is known, that a principle of a feedback – a fundamental principle of construction of cybernetic systems. Certainly, we do not think, that the nature was guided these by a principle because 'knew' it. Probably, when as a whole parts were allocated, there should be communications between these portionwise, differently the whole would cease to be it. However, it too a principle, the truth, from area of other science.
Here it is important to emphasize essential difference of the fourth model from first three in which the environment was active, and reaction of model of an organism – is passive. In model on fig. 4 interoperability of channels 5 and 6 back: active it is necessary to consider the channel 6. In other words, the brain, being active, now itself becomes as though an environment for a body which it operates.
By several lines it has been above told, that the body acted as an environment for a brain. Now – to the contrary? No, the body and a brain is simple form the closed operating contour. Because of it the concept "spur-reaction", characteristic for passive model, becomes obsolete, therefore in the subsequent models it is replaced by concepts « the information of an environment » and « the target information of model ».
As channels 5 and 6 are specific, as serve internal demands of model of an organism and directly are not connected with information interoperability of model with an environment, they in picture are represented differently. Probably, will not be a mistake if we shall consider channels as 5 and 6 channels of transfer of the physiological information unlike others which should be named information.
The following step of progress of model of an alive organism is presented by model on fig. 5. In process of evolutionary progress the brain becomes more and more complex information system.
If in the previous models it received messages only from an environment and the 'physiological' information from a body now for its normal functioning the information on its own work not only as physiological but also as information system is required.
Differently, the brain from the information point of view becomes an environment in relation to itself, that emphasizes its escalating activity.
This active role as it seems to us, the channel 7 is capable to carry out. Apparently, in this model it is possible to speak about availability of one more channel 8. Its role will be easier for presenting if to subdivide all channels into two types: 1) the descriptive information; 2) the executive (command) information. Channels of the second type on fig. 5 are shown by darkly dark blue color. The given division of channels on types represents the certain analogy to division of channels on declarative and procedural channels. Such division of channels it is accepted in a number of works on an artificial intellect. See for example, D.A. Pospelov's book « Imagination or a science » [22, p. 162, 163].
At such classification the channel 8 is the channel of transfer of the executive information from a brain to itself, i.e. the active channel.
Fig.5 The model with the brain of the second type
In model on fig. 5 essential that circumstance is represented, that the brain and a body from the information point of view are not separated, therefore the channel 8 is only a branch of the channel 4. In a similar way, the brain cannot distinguish the information acting through sense organs from an environment and the information on an environment, occuring in it, that is shown in picture by association of channels 3 and 7.
The following stage of evolution of information systems as models of information functioning of alive organisms as it seems to us, is maybe presented by the sixth model under the account (see fig. 6). The essence of this model is clear enough from picture. Really, the brain from the information point of view has stood apart from a body and an environment, becoming ñâîåþ an environment. (It is necessary to emphasize, that in considered models physiological and information channels though are shown separately, actually, certainly, are not absolutely independent.)
If to compare with hypothetical evolution of the information model offered by us as though to actual evolution of actual organisms the certain similarity of hypothetical and actual ways of progress rushes to eyes. To the elementary organisms described by model fig.1, it is possible to carry the nuclear-weapons-free organisms (microbes) which have appeared on the ground 3-4 billion years ago. Process of processing of the information by such organism is very simple.
Responding, for example, on a gradient of chemical concentration of any substance in an environment by means of special chemoreceptors, located on surfaces of an envelope, a microbe is capable to move along a gradient, reducing the special albuminous structures which are being from an external side of an envelope.
Similar primitive reaction was shown also with other unicells which have appeared 2 billion years ago. However language which they "understood", was richer.
For example, the ciliate-slipper, one of the elementary organisms which have kept up to now, shows reactions not only on chemical, but also on mechanical, light and thermal influences, as well as possesses basic skills of training.
Unicells also have no brain that is quite entered in the concept of information model on fig. 2.
Fig.6 The model with the brain of the third type
Nearby 700 million years ago there were the metaphytes possessing a brain. However the basic characteristic of the first brain (a brain of the first type) was it rigidity, i.e. rigid pre-programming. . The brain, having received the program of work by right of succession, could not reconstruct it during a life of the individual (model on fig. 4).
On the second constructive version evolution has generated a brain which « was not the slave to an instinct: it could independently « understand » the acting information, to remember it » [22, p. 13]. However (we shall see it in the fourth chapter), a range of similar "explanation" is limited and congenital, it is impossible to change it (model to fig. 5).
Finally, the third version of a brain – a human brain. Its capacities to training and adaptation practically are boundless, the human brain unlike first two versions of a brain possesses consciousness. Why the material brain generates not material consciousness?
As the material brain develops not a material idea, produces not material consciousness is a question from questions. We precisely do not know, how it is possible to answer it. But we are ready to offer a working hypothesis (unfortunately, hypotheses happen erroneous?!), hinting at existence of the area including the true answer.
Was whether the word from beginning?
The concept of the information is central in construction of model of consciousness and a background of the concept of subjective immortality, therefore we shall concentrate attention to this ordinary and mysterious 'subject matter'. The information fills our life. But last word about it – ahead, even because about its nature still there are scientific disputes.
Even definition: the information is « … an exchange of the information between people, the person and the automatic device, the automatic device and the automatic device … » , poorly intelligibly, short of impeccability of translation of English «information» on Russian 'message', 'information'. About what of the information, what for messages? Such question to answer it is impossible. For example, « tomorrow in Moscow cloudy weather with clearings … » is expected or « the commercial fiasco was sufferred with the Uzbek currency stock exchange … », or « she gave me a quick look needle and registered mistake ». Messages – uncountable set: «tris zenymyats Doogra si» - too the message. The conclusion arises: the intelligent English phrase and an accidental set of English characters give some reference point at movement to the answer. The information as a code as the material carrier of sense is one, and its sense – quite different. Speech about code concept of the information for the given question is not connected with our subject matter Here will not go. Let's talk about senses.
It would seem, apparently, that the sense to all is given by the person. From here – one extreme measure: the information is connected with the person, and outside of it, it simply does not exist. The similar sight quickly encounters absurdities if it to direct on quite 'intelligent' action of the robot. All right, Let it pass, with the robot: it supposedly all the same was comprehended by the person. Extreme measures are tendentious, therefore we shall depart from edge.
The leader submits a blare – a signal of danger, and multilegged herd, raising a dust, is born away from the predator who has hidden in thrickets. Here there is no person, but there is a sense clear even hummel calf, who has received the disturbing message. Hence, the sense, is more precise that refers to as this word, concept not cleanly human.
What is such, what refers to as a human word 'sense'?
The modern sights which are going back to Platon according to which the sense is a certain primary essence take place: « Our initial postulate on primary existence of the senses ordered on a continuum, it is possible to consider as the further progress of key points of Platon about primary existence of ideas » [25, p.10]. If so, the semantic side of the information lays outside of the person though, in essence, is all the way through anthropic. Really, the hand somehow does not rise to allocate on a continuum the point appropriating 'sense' described above flight, from 'point of view' rescueed from a pursuit. Perhaps, it would be one more extreme measure. But then why the report of information «atando» (on a modern slang «atas»), subjecting boys in panic flight from a apple garden, is allocated by the certain sense, and cry the leader of herd is senseless? Or it is allocated by sense only for the person? Then why antelopes run? No, here something not so. Sense hardly maybe the primary essence which has been torn off from the person and at the same time belonging only him; behind it as behind a semantic side of the information something is guessed such, that is uniform in the variety and varied at the unity.
During suitable time the told word raises in the price. Probably, it also is fair and for citations: « … we can think, that the world in all displays – physical, biological or psychological – is arranged by some identical image. Its core is the certain initially set reality revealing through number » [9, with. 229]. As in children's game – it is already hot! Only, why non-material number, instead of the non-material attitude? To us it is thought, that a fundamental role in construction of the world – that we name the attitude, Pythagoreans understood still. However, in their interpretation not, and the number too referred. Perhaps, because it is incomprehensible, but available? Now we understand, that the number acts as the quantitative characteristic of any attitude: « … any mathematical theory studies the certain algebraic system, … studies set with the attitudes allocated in it » .
If to consider various levels of the organization of objects of a material world from subnuclear up to galactic all of them are conformed with the certain generalized model: all levels will be organized on the basis of specific to each of them of interactions of elements making them. However this model is represented enough trivial, and, consequently, unproductive for our analysis if elements of each level to consider only material îáðàçîâàíüÿìè, and interoperability to reduce only to the category physical. The model is essentially enriched if to pass to broad interpretation, i.e. if to admit as elements not only material, but also non-material 'objects', and interoperability to replace with generalizing concept 'attitude', into which 'influence' or 'interoperability' enter as a special case. The possibility of similar expansion is quite proved, as it is reflection of a true state of affairs, that a little below will be subject by a number of examples.
The offered model to some extent conforms to mathematical concept of set. Set, certainly, concept abstract. Within the limits of a task in view (to understand, that such sense of the information) we shall try to leave from extreme abstraction as we shall use concept of set not as formal mathematical object but only as the conceptual structure having an actual content. We shall explain told by following analogy. From the conveyor of car factory for any interval of time has descended, for example, twenty motor vehicles of one model. We shall consider various versions of realization of different attitudes.
Version the first. All twenty cars as elements of set are in one attitude to each other: let all of them – cars of one mark, for example the Ford Focus.
Version of the second. This set breaks up to a subset from five cars connected by the attitude "white", and a subset from fifteen cars, connected by the attitude "cherry".
Version the third. All twenty cars are concerning « with automatic transmission ».
Version the fourth. The set from twenty cars breaks up to two subsets on ten motor vehicles with attitudes for each subset « have descended from a line ¹1 », « have descended from a line ¹2 ».
It is easy to see, that it is possible to construct attitudes of the same elements (cars) both for the fifth and for sixth the and for other subsequent versions. Also apparently, that mentioned (and not mentioned) here attitudes – not pure abstraction: they can serve as the basis for creation of the information on work of the given automobile conveyor.
Now it is necessary to stop in greater detail on concept 'attitude'. The attitude is the patrimonial concept which is not reduced to other, more elementary (here there is no speech about formal mathematical definition). However, it would be possible to take advantage of recursive definition, for example: the attitude is an attitude of acquaintance, the attitude of equality, the attitude of an inequality, the attitude of divisibility, the attitude of interoperability, etc., etc., finally, the attitude is an attitude.
Just as once N.Wiener has defined: « the information is an information ». But recursion does not rescue, as for definition of the attitude with its help it should to list uncountable set of every possible attitudes that is, certainly, senseless employment.
Easier to divide attitudes into three groups. First, attitudes of type of direct interoperability when between elements power communication (gravitational interoperability, electromagnetic forces, intranuclear interoperability, etc.) is established. Secondly, attitudes of type of direct information interoperability.
In attitudes of a similar type take place also power (even material) exchanges as the information cannot exist without the power or material carrier. However, it will be a question of the information further. Thirdly, - attitudes abstract, mediated. In attitudes of such type there is no direct communication between elements, there is no their direct interoperability, but the attitude, nevertheless, exists.
It is important to note, that the above-listed types of attitudes exist not necessarily only in unique of the specified forms. So, for example, one of the cores in the world of macrobodies of attitudes of type of gravitational interoperability is shown not only in the form of movement of planets. The form of expression of the same attitude is abstract formula F=km1m2/R2.
The attitude if it only is not power interoperability, it is impossible to consider material in the sense that not the matter as those defines an essence of such attitude. And in this sense it can take place, as between material elements, and non-material intangible entities.
In particular, as similar non-material essence the attitude that brings to existance concepts « the attitude of attitudes » can act again. Let's result enough a simple example, using concept of equality. Say, it is possible to speak about equality of weights of two stones, or – about equality of their volumes, or about equality (concurrence) of two musical tones received from different tools, or about equality of members of the equation, etc., etc. Apparently,that for realization of this attitude absolutely it does not matter whether – the nature of compared elements is material or non-material – the result of comparison is important, and it – is obviously non-material. At the same time non-material attitudes are quite objective and can exist outside of the person.
Here it is necessary to note, that non-material attitudes expediently to divide into two classes – the realized and non-realized attitudes. In this connection the question on objective existence of non-material attitudes is more reasonable for carrying only to realized.
Equality of quantity of valent electrons at silicon and carbon – the realized attitude as it is objectively shown in the certain chemical similarity of the named elements. At the same time hardly it is possible to speak about actual display of any attitude, for example, between a boulder, laying in ten meters precisely on the south from the top point of the Everest (maybe, in this seat and there is no boulder), and atom of hydrogen, 10 light years being at present on distance on a line connecting an eye of the author with an Alpha Ursae (atom of hydrogen there too it can not appear). However the given exotic attitude has immediately generated in that model of the world which has appeared in a head of the author in an instant of a writing of these lines.
Let's give some more examples of the attitudes existing between non-material objects. Let there is a message (information): the number 'A' totally divisible on number 5 ». Let there is a second message: the number 'A' totally divisible on number 2 ». Each of these messages – is non-material, though, certainly, and is written in this case on the material carrier – to a paper, for example. What new attitude is maybe constructed from mentioned? For the person absolutely distant from mathematicians, between these messages there is no attitude. But the person even little bit familiar with concept of divisibility (i.e. the attitude of divisibility), the new attitude between number 'A' and number 10 detects. Data, certainly, very simple example can be interpreted as follows: as a result of realization of the attitude between attitudes there can be that in an ordinary life name a word 'information'.
Let's take other example. The shadow from subject matter shined by the sun (buildings, a tree, etc.) falls on a surface of the ground. A shadow as seat dark by direct solar beams – it is non-material (though, 'seat' - is obviously material).
At the same time it exists and is not than other, as result of realization of the attitude which have arisen between the sun (is more precise, a stream of the light energy going from it), a building and a platform of the ground. There, where the shadow comes to an end, display of other attitude takes place: attitudes of solar beams and surfaces of the ground (if there were no solar beams, there would be no brightly shined seat but if there was no "seat" « brightly shined seat » too was not).
At the same time the platform of the ground shined by a sunlight is material, as a mixture of splinters silica, limestone, organic particles, etc. instead of because it is shined just as the shadow is non-material. On border of the site shined and dark by direct beams (light and a shadow) "light-shadow" refers.
As a result of a various degree of heating of ground in the shade and on light (on border of a treatment of light and shade) in ground basically can appear any, let and undistinguished, mechanical pressure and deformations. That is the attitude of non-material elements (light exposure and a shadow) can, as though generate the phenomenon of the material order. Character of distribution of microcracks in ground in this case contains the information on a course of a heavenly body, geometrical parameters of a building, properties of ground, availability of clouds in the sky, etc.
It is important to understand, that here it is a question of methodology, instead of about the physicist and, consequently, told it is not necessary to understand as capacity « not matters » to create a matter. Certainly, microcracks in ground have appeared not as consequence of action ñóùíîñòåé type "shined" and "dark".
Microcracks are result of display of dependence of mechanical strength, for example, limestone at its expansion (compression) from a degree of heating or cooling. But it is physics. At a level of the philosophical analysis given, let and private, an example it is more convenient to use concept "attitude". The considered example shows, that the information of concept "attitude" to concept "interoperability" narrows the first and complicates the generalized analysis of many phenomena. From few examples listed here it is possible to draw the certain conclusions.
The first. The attitude can apply for a role of the uniform conceptual concept allowing on the basis of one methodological approach to consider the most different displays of the world of the material phenomena and non-material essence. Differently, the attitude alongside with such concepts as space, time, a matter, consciousness could be carried to a rank of philosophical categories, having removed with it frameworks only mathematical or only household definitions.
The second. The attitude inherently is non-material (except for the attitude of type of interoperability), but also and it is not ideal if to treat ideal as something such, that belongs to extremely human consciousness as it can objectively exist outside of the person, irrespective of the person.
For example, it is known, that weight of the Earth approximately in eighty times more lunar. It is the objective characteristic, not dependent on someone's consciousness; differently, the attitude « in eighty times more », considered with reference to the given case, exists really. It, certainly, would not be realized, besides with reference to the given case, without existence of the Earth and the Moon. Planet the Earth and its satellite the Moon (we shall consider them for simplicity without the Sun) cooperate among themselves, certainly, not because their weights are concerning « in eighty times more » that is why, that they are subordinated to action of the law of universal gravitation. But by virtue of objective existence of the attitude « in eighty times more » which is realized by means of existence of weights of the Earth and the Moon, the Moon is Earth satellite, rather the reverse.
The attitude is not primary essence in the sense that can exist irrespective of elements between which it arises. For occurrence of the attitude availability even one element (the attitude of a reflection) is necessary. In the mathematician (in the theory of sets) similar attitudes also refer to as properties.
It is represented to us, that the term "property" is very successful not only in mathematical, but in ordinary and philosophical senses. What it means the attitude of separately taken material element to, certain as property?
There is, for example, such definition: « Property is a philosophical category for a designation of internally inherent objective reality of capacity to detect those or other sides in processes of interrelation and interoperability » [31, p.77].
It is thought, that through property as the single attitude is realized a way of existence of an element as existence just and is shown through its properties (property « to borrow the certain volume », property « to be rigid », property « to be heavy », etc., etc.).
The similar idea can be met, for example, at hardly above the quoted author: « … properties of subject matters represent itself as some potential life » (in the same place p.75). Differently, nothing can exist outside of the attitude of a reflection (here the term "reflection" has not psychological, and more likely, mathematical or physical sense).
The definition of property resulted above is based only on a private type of the attitude (interrelation and interoperability), and in this case property is the characteristic material and can be treated as attribute of a matter (red, heavy, slow, etc.).
However if to admit wider interpretation of the attitude (thus as elements also to take the attitude ») the category "property" can be distributed and on non-material essence.
So, for example, property « to be identical » belongs not only to material objects (say, two identical cones), but also to objects non-material (the identical formulas identical to an idea, identical attitudes). And as property acts as display of potential life objectively there are and not material elements. At the same time in a sheaf "material-ideal" these non-material elements cannot be carried to a category "ideal" if last to treat in the traditional image.
We are distant from intention to distribute ideal from "human" up to "divine". It is more logical to admit: that usually refers to "ideal", - also attribute of a matter. From here it is possible to see an all-important conclusion.
The element (it does not matter whether – material or non-material) cannot staticize itself outside of the attitude (generally not necessarily material order). Material and non-material are indissolubly connected, both outside of this communication and without this communication there is nothing real: original monism, overcoming sidedness of classical monism (deductibility of all real only from a matter) and bilateralism of classical dualism (independent existence of a matter and spirit). At the same time we would not like, that the similar statement was reduced, for example, to teyyarizm (some links on Teilhard will be given in chapter 5), in which (as display ideal) is considered mentality indispensable attribute material. The attitude as non-material generally the concept, not is mentality, it – only a basis for occurrence of mentality.
Feature of a category "attitude" consists that it in the certain sense invariant, i.e. is not so unequivocal correlated with elements between which this attitude takes place. Really, if again to return to the attitude « gravitational interoperability » character of its display in empty space does not depend at all on, whether this interoperability between two down pillows or metal balls of the same weight is considered. Similar it is possible to observe and concerning "equality": absolutely it does not matter whether from the point of view of realization of this attitude – whether there is a speech about equality of two numbers or equality of weights of two planets.
Similar invariancy of the attitude to a reality of elements between which it arises, well is correlated with a principle of invariancy of the information to its physical carrier , that, probably, confirms deep communication between concept "attitude" and concept « sense of the information ».
It is necessary to note, that weak correlation of a category "attitude" and concepts "element" - a basis of modelling. Any model (including abstract, mathematical) that also differs from modelled object (phenomenon), that it is constructed on other to " element base » more often, but to some completeness reproduces the attitudes which are taking place in modelled object (phenomenon).
The similar idea, the truth expressed with use of other terminology, met and earlier: for example, speech can go about allocation « conformity of an image to the original which depend not on similarity of their elements or substrata, and from similarity of leading groups of attitudes between elements or subsystems of that and another » [33, p.264].
Visible innumerability of attitudes in the nature and a society, apparently, does not leave any hope for their classification or ranging (there's nothing to be done – the destiny of a science is those: to display all on shelves). But, perhaps, concerning the lifeless nature such attempt is maybe undertaken.
Space, time, their metrics and, finally, forces of action (interoperability) – here the form and at the same time a content of a material world. The space proves through the attitude « to be on distance », time – a chain of relationships of cause and effect or attitudes. The metrics is maybe opened through attitudes "equally", "not equally" it is, " more ", "less".
This, for the present not working mechanism, - three ones for each "part" making it does not exist in itself but only in indissoluble communication. Any mechanism is dead, its purpose is not realized, if it is not started, if it does not work. Forces of the nature (the attitude of action) – here a spring, giving to the mechanism eternal movement. Probably, this accidental concurrence, that fundamental forces of the nature, as well as the attitudes, too four: gravitational, electromagnetic, nuclear and weak interoperability. The named forces also do not exist in itself: their nature detects by means of space, time and the metrics, i.e. by means of those attitudes which they "start". All is fastened in a dense ball. Whether there is an initial end of a string?
Now we are ready to speak about « a content of the information » (sense) as not dependent on a material basis of adequate model of the attitude (the estranged attitude). At the same time the information cannot exist without any material carrier which is primary in the philosophical plan, but does not play a defining role in disclosing sense of the information.
Existing ambiguity in treatment of the information (especially its sense) in the lifeless nature and outside of the person speaks, probably, that the alienated attitudes in the lifeless nature act in its forms and, consequently, cannot be (or can be hardly) are allocated as the information, instead of as the independent natural form. On sedimentary breeds it is possible to look as at a reality, and it is possible to see in them the alienated attitude of causes and effects at variation of climatic conditions or the seasonal periods. On movement of galaxies and planetary systems we look as at a universe. Whether and it is possible to look at them as on the alienated attitude in forms of the nature display spatial, metric, relationships of cause and effect and a full set of physical interactions? The answer, probably, is obvious.
Till now the most abstract model considers model mathematical (in it, as a matter of fact, there are no material elements and there are only attitudes). Probably, on a degree of abstraction from material essence it is necessary to consider as relatives and the images arising in a brain and being information reflection actual, external essence. Thus, the concept commonly used and taken, probably, from philosophy "image" in essence coincides with concept "model".
Confirming told can be met and at other authors: « the actual equivalent of subjectively experienced image in a brain is not set of neurons, and only orderliness, as embodied in this set » [3, p.148]. It is easy to see, that here speech in fact goes about model of attitudes.
The popular belief is wide enough, that the information processable by a brain, forms the certain information field displaying an external world and being model of this world inside of a brain. In a brain of an animal – one model, in a brain of the person – another, and, certainly, at different people of model something differ.
Speaking about the information processes proceeding in a brain, it is possible to use as explanatory analogy the examples taken from area of TV. We shall result one of them.
To television studioes there is a videorecording performance. Actual attitudes between its participants will be transformed by means of the equipment to attitudes of a different degree of magnetization of various sites of a magnetic film.
Through any time when participants of performance will be to each other absolutely in other attitudes, them earlier the recorded attitudes by means of other equipment will be translated in attitudes frequency (or others) characteristics of the electromagnetic field created by the radiating aerial of a television center. Let's stop contrary to physical laws for some time a wave and we shall reflect. Any complex collisions of human attitudes, in the given example born by the playwright and embodied during a life the director and actors, have turned to actual attitudes of sites magnetized substances or intensity of an electromagnetic field.
What the general between a smile of the actor and orientation of ensemble of magnetic domains? It would seem, anything. And, nevertheless, the spatial attitude between corners of lips and, for example, a tip of the nose, taken place on the person and the undergone variation when lips have developed in a smile, was completely transformed to the attitude of a different degree of magnetization. Optical and electronic devices have created in the cardinal image a model differing the original. But this cardinal transformation has kept in the certain degree one fundamental essence – the attitude. During transformation « performance – magnetic record » allows to speak invariancy of the attitude about a possibility of return transformation. Therefore we shall follow a television signal further.
Now, already by means of the reception equipment, it will be transformed to the image (only in the image, instead of in alive actors! In it is incompleteness of transformation) and in a sound. The playwright who has composed the play, has died the last century, the director has left abroad, actors – one are borrowed in other performance, others – by house affairs. Therefore that we see on the screen and we hear from a loud-speaker of a television receiver, most properly to define a word – "phantom".
Than, the phantoms visiting screens of our TVs differ from the substantial analogues? The answer, apparently, occurs in the question: phantoms like also are immaterial; people appropriating them – from a flesh, the car - from metal, mountain – from a stone, a cloud – from vapor, etc., etc. But strange, the similar fundamental difference is often ignored by us: the emotions wakened in us by the telescreen, are at times indistinguishable from the emotions caused by an actual life. People similar reserve of TV (it is equal, as cinema, somewhat - theatre) willingly accept. From a field of vision other, not less basic difference of television phantoms escapes the actual analogues: attitudes between phantoms though are similar on original, however it is absolutely others, than between actual objects. On the telescreen information interchange between phantoms only seeming. Actually between various sites of the screen on which images are projected, for example, the talking people, no information interoperability occurs.
The image of the television phantom, in our opinion, is the successful model describing a picture of display by a brain of realities of an external world. The information processes proceeding in a brain, are a basis for construction some kind of phantoms. For understanding their essence not so the physical nature of their display is important.
Certainly, it is not those, as in the TV; especially, the television phantom is passive, its activity – is illusory. Phantoms of our brain are active, they are among themselves in attitudes enough adequate subject matters which conform to their actual analogues. In particular, between them there can be processes of information interchange.
What forces phantoms of our brain to be active? It, undoubtedly, an interesting and important question. We have partially answered it in section « Evolution of model ». Its further explanation will be given below, in section « Two processes ». But even without this answer we see, that the riddle of transformation of material nervously-electric signals of a brain in non-material consciousness and thinking is concluded in transformation of attitudes. The complex of attitudes is an information. We, people, with the information often compare with a word. And as the information is born from attitudes we have the right to give a hint on the answer of the section of a question put in heading.
And the last about what it would be necessary to tell in the given section. Sometimes it is possible to hear the statement – yes, the brain is information system, yes, processes of thinking can be interpreted as information. But the brain can do still "something" which are not keeping within in any way in information-algorithmic box.
And in these other-wordly limits to a science with its logic, with its rationalism, there is nothing to do supposedly. It would be possible to concern with valid understanding to it "something" if it did not detect itself, laying on same the box.
Let's make, as mathematicians speak, a strong assumption. However, in this case it will be strong not in mathematical, and in world outlook sense. We shall admit, that Space reasonable force, the God, finally, exists. Certainly, the interoperability of the person with these transcendental forces occurs not differently, as by means of "something". But if to look at a pray, revelation, clairvoyance, a condition of deep meditation, etc. a unbiassed sight except for information "channels", the truth, with other worlds, we of other do not see anything.
Unimportantly, at the made assumption, that the information interoperability is based on outside of sensual experience (the information "has come off" the material carrier). Another is important – everyone outside of sensual experience on the purpose does not fall outside the limits attitudes between elements. Pray – the intelligent text passed "there", revelation – too or the text only passed "back", or an image (i.e. – the model something), – freakish image the drawn picture of difficultly represented images, etc. Also speaks a condition of a death-trance to nothing that work of a brain even in the conditions named transcendental, falls outside the limits information processes.
The "strong" assumption appears extra: it does not bring anything new though, certainly, and does not prove impossibility of similar "course".
If someone will make attempt of us to define, that such consciousness it will inevitably collide with insuperable difficulty. And business not only that it till now did not manage to be made to anybody, and at all that consciousness as, for example, and the matter, concerns to categorical concepts, to define which especially difficultly. Essence of a problem in other: it is a question not so much of search of a definition - it, eventually, always it is possible to think up - how many in understanding that such consciousness in general as the phenomenon.
What is the consciousness - the natural phenomenon which is not reduced to any other natural bases or it is epiphenomenon, resulting from any other bases, for example, as consequence of the special system organization, or it in general a supernatural product? About the last we shall not speak. The first two points of view pertinently to support with links on authorities. The link the first. « The consciousness in sense of a phenomenon of understanding, is final, directly authentic and final reality further which we do not go in our analysis and understanding... The Nature think - not a problem of a positive science ». The link the second. «... The subject... is an objective reality, a particle of the world, and that from it proceeds, eventually, starts with a basis of the world, in fact even the most rare and improbable living being carries on itself and the general feeds for all of us the ground ». The first quote belongs to the philosopher Merab Mamardashvili , the second - a psychologist Carl Gustav Jung [35 p.62].
If to follow the first link there is a puzzled question to which for some reason often do not pay attention: why the consciousness maybe, and can and to not be (for example, on its Earth all over again was not, and has then appeared). The matter is not destroyed and does not arise, it only passes from one form in another. Perhaps, and the consciousness exists in different forms? Anyway, such sight takes place. But it is more realistic for us is the second link, which opens the way to the basics of consciousness, and we will adhere to that concept.
The vision of an object depends on the point of view: If you see a straight line from the end, it becomes a point. In the consciousness of philosophers viewed with special reverence, and even trepidation, as befits a look at the mystery. Teilhard expressed an indisputable idea (perhaps not only) that phylogeny is a growth of consciousness. Here the term consciousness is used generalized way: the worm it occurs as a primitive feeling, on top of the pyramid was magnified homo sapiens. Why does consciousness as a means of opening the world should grow? Perhaps asking this question, we have the answers and the rest? One answer seems to be laid in the question itself: the higher consciousness, the more adequate contact with the world and more secure existence in it. However, as is the evolution of the urban unconscious insects? Another response - it is self-consciousness of the world itself through the individual is generated by the above-mentioned respectful point of view, and usually leads to a series of unanswered questions. There is one - to leave the traditional view and try to find a new one.
Major problem in understanding consciousness is communication physical with mental. In other words - as individuals or, more precisely, the physiological processes give rise to psychological? It must be admitted that so far no scientific subject failed in their part to solve this problem not a single experimental fact does not answer to this question. True, the computer analogy suggests eligibility comparisons of brain processes that give birth to consciousness, with the information. But the computers themselves do not possess consciousness, so such a comparison, many experts and many more non-specialists regard as unacceptable. Despite the impressive progress in the development of science, the modest results in terms of psycho-physical problems are caused, in our view, we ask the wrong question: we quickly want to know, which device should have a material structure, that this device could give rise to consciousness. However, it seems more correct to put the question differently: what is consciousness, what the evolution of living systems has taken the path of its creation?
Going down the stairs of an involution of life, it is appropriate to ask the intriguing question. To what step should be to stand up, that to say with certainty, it is no consciousness? Range of responses are dangerously high: some scientists believe that even at the last step, before a man talking about, consciousness is not necessary, and someone say, that down to the deepest cellars of the material world, offering search even in the consciousness of the electron. If the thought of the consciousness of an electron is taken literally, what could it mean? Understands himself electron, as for example, it sees the device, in which it had to work and that the people calls the electron microscope? A literal understanding of the electronic consciousness adds nothing to our knowledge about consciousness as such as compared with the rejection of conscious activity in mammals. But if the consciousness of an electron is a metaphor for, well, this could be acceptable. In fact, what is manifested in humans in the form of consciousness, perhaps, is inherent in the properties foremothers? Then the evolution of consciousness, the growth of consciousness in the words of Teilhard, should be understood as the accumulation, development, disclosure of these properties.
If a property is to have a white color belongs to some object, then the property does not change the geometric dimensions of the latter: there are white snowflakes and white steamers. Consciousness can not be large or small. These words can be assigned to another concept – awareness. Speaking about the nature of consciousness, we must clearly understand: if at some stage of the evolutionary ladder appeared consciousness (though we can not say what it is), then at the previous step should look for its background. The below - not mean - the easier. However, if a large result is due to a small cause, the conditions may be available for analysis. It seems that the evolution of life strictly follows this law. At what step we need to stand up, if we will go down, or, equivalently, if we will go up?
Our assumption is this: even if you include the emergence of consciousness bottom of the ladder of life, it should search for the sources in the structure of inert matter, and a metaphor for the American physicist Bohm on the conscious of the electron is appropriate. However, the experience of the electron in the consciousness of the physical methods are unlikely to succeed. The scalpel should be thinner. The information not be a matter of physics, however, would not call it and the metaphysical concept. In this sense, our efforts will in no way go beyond the competence of science.
Previously, it was suggested: to exist - then be on to something or someone ratio, or - as a universal method of determining the existence - to be in the reflex ratio itself. Incidentally, such a definition is fully consistent with usual - have a place or to be in stock. In other words, be in relation to a certain place or be in relation to some person. Hard to think about the question. The stone knows whether, that it exists? If you refuse esoteric quest, it must be said - the stone do not knows that it exists. However, there is an fundamental difference: something not exists, or something exists but not knows about own existence. From the inside, if such a view was possible - the same thing. Due a endeavor of the inhabitants of our planet, Earth, will blow up and it will become as legendary Phaeton. For humanity there is difference: it was a people who did not become a persons. For the Earth - no matter - it does not know own face. We gave up extravagant attempts to ascribe the Earth as a planetary body, the mind. However, dissatisfaction remains - the existence of inert matter in relation to itself is tantamount to not existence.
This dissatisfaction was troubled by M. Heidegger , he was constantly asking - why is there something rather than "nothing" - it could be simpler? Logic dictates our thinking: there is "nothing" to say and say there is "nothingness" then say the same thing. Let's try to understand. The first sentence denies the existence of all - even with respect: we all agreed that without a relationship anything can not exist. The second sentence presupposes the existence anything of as soon pronounced "exists" (there is). There are two possible arguments: "nothing" is taken in respect of itself, or is it that "nothing" is considered in respect of, for example, a man. However, what is it then "nothing"? So is not contradictory, it would seem, is the first option. In fact, it also introduces a logical dead end: there is "nothing" there, because there is "nothing" related to itself, ie there exists a pair of interconnected but distinct objects - "nothing" and "relationship". This is not "nothing". Logical casuistry provides an answer to a nagging question - "nothing" there, because its existence is impossible. We repeat it again: the existence, it means to be in relationship.
Thus, the inert world is doomed to exist no matter what - or in the form of Receding galaxies, or as isotropic in all respects the physical vacuum. This world (if we take all its real and imaginable incarnation) not could, not be, and therefore, could not be created, can not it destroyed. So the question - whether the world knows about own existence, or should it know of itself existence - a matter of simple human nature, without man, he does not make sense. But "somehow" the world "wanted" to know this, and ...was origin of life. The answer to "somehow" still waiting for its treasured hours.
There are many definitions of life. Let's give another: any life is differ from nonliving by increased exchange of information within the living, as well as - between living and inert. Owning information - this is, after all - the possession of knowledge. In a living organism, as opposed to dead matter appeared potential: to know. Much can be known, the first and the foremost - to know that you exist. Thus, the existence of stone, for example, and the existence of rights is a fundamental difference: the stone does not know about its existence. The man is know.
It is therefore necessary for the existence of inanimate objects and the existence of a man enter different terms: a stone is exists, the person not only exists, he it is. We shall refer to the existence of human, being. At the scene except for the predicate (verb) 'to exist' beyond the second act a predicate appears 'to be'. We will check whether all the terms mentioned here have a clear definition. "To be" - is enriched with knowledge about its own existence. Nothing - without the existence of knowledge about myself. Nothingness is or is not the existence or existence without the knowledge of his own existence. The question remains. What does "own"? Let us ask ourselves - what do you need do to answer this question?
Much of the initial formation of the living unknown, but one determined unequivocally: a living from nonliving detached sheath, membrane, and later - shell, skin. One stone on another stone, or stone from the air are separated ... by the same stone or ... the very same air. Life has created a new concept - an organism, which must necessarily be separated not only in space but also physically from the environment and other living organisms (human). It is known that the body communicates with the environment of matter and energy, and if did not work the principle of somatic (body) of individualization, as it differed matter and energy, belonging to the body, belonging to the medium? It would not be this distinction, there would be no body because the separation is necessary for something like a fence. However, somatic segregation - it is only an external manifestation of individualization. A living organizm to require information of individualization: it's you, but it's not you. Does knows a living organism, that it exists or does not knows? Since all living things receive from the world's information, and generates own internal, they must be able to distinguish internal from external. The greater the correspondence between the external and internal information in an organism, the more adequate the behavior of the organism in this environment.
Can we, by analogy with the principle of individualization of somatic talk about the principle of informational individualization? I think yes. Informational individualize yourself, it means to know, what there is "you", and that, is not "you". The possession such knowledge, is a very difficult thing. At our level human, understanding we're talking, it would seem, about trivial things. Each of us can distinguish self from non-self, but it is possible precisely because we have the consciousness. Russian word, 'consciousness' (in Russian it means - 'knowledge of himself') is surprisingly accurately conveys the meaning of this phenomenon. Can we review the method of this discernment more carefully? Suppose that in the nerve fiber of an organism arose excitement. Excitation appeared in and the reason it could be, both inside and outside. In somatic individualisation, internal is under skin, external is beyond. How to divide information? The skin does not help here, metal screen generally, may interrupt, the flow of information. There is a contradiction: simultaneously information must be open to the world and closed.
Imagine starting the simplest living organism, perhaps even prokaryotic, but something even more simple, as we do not know. But this organism, however, as acting, there is a primitive metabolism. The question arises: do is a automat the organism or is not? The automat is a closed or open system, operating in an environment independently of a specific fixed or independently modify the software. Then the first two levels of living, suggest, are biological machines with a fixed program or with automatic variable program.
Simple or complicated program had these organisms, we are not so important. We can assume that the automaton with a fixed program could prove more difficult machine with flexible program.We have important premise, but it is as follows - the first living organisms were on our definition of machines. In determining the machine particularly want to emphasize - it exists, not knowing about it. It's terrible: exist, and how would not exist! But "in terms of the body", mechanisms to preserve of life, let's work: escape in the darkness, in the heat, or vice versa - in the cold, avoidance of certain chemical reagents, etc. However, no have information mechanism, that distinguishes the being off the existence, or the same thing - the being off the nothingness.
Next, a fundamentally new stage in the formation of the living is the emergence of a mechanism of distinguishing the being off the existence. Thus, the living organism to learn that it exists: found - means that it had got information about its own existence. To do this, information and distinguish yourself from the environment and to establish that its own - it is your own body and the information stored in it, and everything else - not own. It seems that since the advent of the "informational machine" distinguish the being from the nothingness began, unimaginably long step further formation of life. If you let your imagination run wild, you can imagine how painfully difficult was this process of individualization of information. A worm was pressed down a stone, but the worm does not know what he worm, that there is a stone that can to press down. The life convulsively writhing in dreadful convulsions, and trying to distinguish themselves from non-life and other lives.
The life came out of nowhere, so as not to go into oblivion again, was obliged to learn to recognize the being-nothingness. Its task is an attribute of life, and therefore, information individualization is and its attribute. If you introduce the concept of the degree of information individualization , it can be expressed quantitatively, eg, from zero to unity. A value of zero degrees can be mapped to inert matter, full of information corresponds to the individualization of man. It is permissible in our view make the following statement: an increase in the degree of individualization of information - this is the growth of consciousness. Full of information individualization incarnated is the human consciousness.
Specialists when they talk about consciousness, often the most important feature of consciousness is called property bimodal, ie the ability of consciousness to form "I" and distinguish it from the rest of the non-ego. In our proposed interpretation of the need to turn upside down (in the sense of consciousness, we always stood and still stand on his head, so with a consciousness so difficult).We must speak: do not mind possesses the property of bimodal, but the bimodality is incarnated as an information individualization, and we call this consciousness.
We are so elaborated on information individualization, because we believe its the principle that determined the emergence of consciousness and its growth. In fact, as we have seen, growing individualization informationally release itself from the world. The growth of consciousness, or in another way, the growth of mental is growth of increasing individualization of information. The animal, being physically is separated from the world, psychically else is integrated in the environment. And only a person who created inside "I", and not-I ", completed this process of individualization. With the proposed view, the consciousness is holding in trust a secret in origin, but it becomes clear how phenomenon. From this point of view we see consciousness as great consequence by simple reason and such a thing as cosmic consciousness is the great chimera. It turns out, not only in everyday life, but also in world outlook is important to see - in what order are the cart and horse. We think that nature is not so wasteful that originally put out of sight the ready consciousness in own secret storeroom. If so, would have to acknowledge it uncanny foresight and an unnatural patience. Thus, the growth of consciousness, can be represented as the growth of the pyramid (Fig. 7).
Fig.7 Pyramid of the growth of non-being to being
(Note to figure:
the lower black rectangle - speculative nonexistence,
the brown box - the existence of inert matter; relationship, as the initial mentality
the blue rectangle - the beginning of information metabolism, biological machines,
the green rectangle - incomplete information individualization (Animal Kingdom)
the top of the pyramid - full information individualization (the man).
Man as body-mental body, indeed, stands at the top of the pyramid, but his duality is seen is not mysterious, out of nowhere adscititious essence, it - a real reflection actually existing world. Therefore, if we want to understand consciousness (and after it death to understand), we need to establish - through what mechanisms is implementing individualization. Make it more convenient than the example of a living organism, and using the concept of an information system.
Let there be an information system, and as soon as it is, there is a description of its structure and rules of its work in the form of some schemes, programs, perhaps - formulas, texts. All this - the information the system description, however - in human terms. In terms of - its own description it is, taken as a set of relations among its elements. In order for this system, earned a mechanism of information personalization, it must:
- That the system can read its own information "sheet" (this way it gets information about yourself),
- That the system can read information about its environment (this way, it receives information about not its self ),
- That the system can distinguish the first description of a second.
A closer look reveals that these requirements are redundant: just two conditions - the ability to read your own description and ability to distinguish it from the rest. To satisfy the second condition of the language's own description should be different from the language of "everything else". Consequently, the basis of information individualization, and on our hypothesis - and consciousness is a mechanism for reading its own description.
Fig.8 Traditionally understood location of psycho-physical boundary
Fig. 9 "Covering" of the brain by psycho-physical boundary
It is important to emphasize that the mechanism of reading its own description should be an integral part of the system. The search for a clear mind-body border between the brain and psyche (Fig. 8) seem untenable. Because the information process of reading its own description should be assigned to specially organized system, ie to the brain, and take it - physics, the elusive boundary should be drawn not between, and entirely belong to one of the sides (Fig. 9). Unusual nature of such boundaries is that it is created physics and runs as if on its territory, but manifests itself as an invisible foundation of the psyche. Thus, the brain's ability to read itself is created by nature, and everyone is born a normal brain, including human, originally should have this ability. It is pertinent to recall here the statement V.V. Nalimov , which compares consciousness with text that reads itself.
Next to be extremely strict, and rigor required - not pawns in play - we should combine the ideas with the material the next chapter, which will be presented to an abstract mathematical model - the Turing machine and disclosing important concept – self-applicable Turing machine. Self-applicable Turing machine is the machine Turing that is in read mode its own description.
While we have introduced the concept of "brain's ability to read itself", in what follows, we will associate with the process of self-applicable Turing machine, and it will become clear that the Self-applicability is not artificially created by our process - that supposedly will happen if the Turing machine will read its own description. In fact - this is the only conceivable model of information individualization. Nature took advantage of this model that is depicted in Figure 10. For Figure 8, 9, 10 we should give an explanation. While the psyche is "inside" the body, we represent it out to emphasize the openness of mind, consciousness of the outside world. If we relate the description of psycho-physical boundaries of the brain's ability to read itself as an independent structure that allows it "to tear off" the "I" from our body (more precisely - of the brain). Hence, the birth of each new brain occurs (born) one and the same ability to be I like the ability to separate "being" from "nothingness". Here again it is appropriate to emphasize - to properly understand death, and all that is behind it "happens", it is necessary to talk about birth.
Fig.10 Value of consciousness and the brain
Now we note one important feature. The process of the brain's ability to read itself (on information models of the brain of humans and animals will talk in the next chapter) can not be realized if at the same time the reading will not go the other information process, which is named in Figure 10 processing of external information. If the thickness of the layer 1 in Figure 4 is constant and given the design of the brain, then the layer 2 may have a negligible thickness (newborn brain) and very large (the brain of gifted person). Word of the layer is also conditional, it is comparable only with the image of the figure, and - not with some layers in the real brain. Co-occurrence of two information processes in the layers 1 and 2, if these processes are attributed to the real brain and will create the consciousness. Turing model shows us that each of the information processes in the layers 1 and 2 can not proceed independently of one another: only together they form the consciousness (in Figure 10 - association areas, painted blue and green).
Plans to fig.8-10 provide an opportunity to make some comments about a number of old and modern concepts of consciousness. If left on the psychophysical boundary lines between the brain and psyche, we have the body and mind, which can be separated from each other, which corresponds to the religious, idealistic concepts. The same position of the boundary is established and modern materialism, but, while there were two "no": a postulated - can not detach the psyche from the body, another insuperable - you can not find the border, though it is. One of the modern attempts to find the elusive boundary is to assume the existence of special material particles of consciousness - psihons.
If we assume that they exist, these particles must fill out sections 1 and 2, and then the question arises about their interaction in layer 1 to the brain. Or the whole psyche is a layer 2 (layer 1 is missing), then - how could embody the principle of individuation? Or is he in this case not? Somehow there is an allusion here to a very familiar: "If there is no resurrection of the dead, then Christ is not risen. And if Christ be not risen, then our preaching is in vain and our faith. "
Noteworthy is one more important point that arises when considering the psycho-physical boundaries in the traditional and the proposed interpretation. The situation is traditionally understood boundaries established more or less certain: somewhere between matter and consciousness (Fig.8). While the border itself is not visible, clearly defined what lies on either side - matter and consciousness. You can even watch a separate one of the parties - the unconscious matter. Consciousness without matter personally invisible, but the assumption that it is possible - a key principle of idealism and religion. The proposed provision of psycho-physical boundary is marked by us otherwise - "inside" of consciousness, but its visibility as fundamentally non-existent: the death of the brain leads to the disappearance of borders, because it passes between the death of a vanishing (faint, deep sleep, lethargy, clinical death) information process. But in life it can not be localized using the tools: with its localization consciousness along with it disappears. The nature has reliably hidden it from our curious looks.
It is known that there is little maze in which there would have been dead ends. Well, the thread of Ariadne is likely to lead us in this corridor. We really want to see, to know - whether the brain describe purely mathematical methods. Then - in addition to the scalpel, electron tomography, or EEG recording and analysis, interviews with a psychiatrist and so on the entire brain can be "written" mathematical symbols in computer memory, and further, with the help of computer analysis - to reveal his secrets.
We did not expect further (at least in this book) to build and develop a mathematical model of the information structure, which was presented, for example, in Fig. 6. Too little we know about the processes of the brain to try to create a complete picture of formalized its workþ We do not even know whether, in principle, by means of mathematical apparatus to do so. However, one formal aspect would like to draw attention. If the information model of Fig. 6 denote the input information symbol X, the information circulating through the 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, respectively, through R, W, L, I, P, and algorithms for data conversion channels - as unknown operators A1, A2, A3, A4 , A7, A8, it can be represented by the following, admittedly very simplified, the system of recursive equations:
Readers who studied math at school, give a little explanation. The word "recursion" means "return." The intuitive meaning of recursion is that the value of a function (in this case the values of W, L, I, P, R) at some point are calculated by the values of the same functions in other locations. For example, the first, fourth, and fifth equation is clearly consistent with this definition, because the values of R, I, P found in the left and right sides of equations. If we substitute the values of left-hand side of some equations in the right part of the other, it is easy to make explicit recursion and for the rest of recursive values. For example, substituting the value of L from the third equation into the second, we
W = A3 (A4 (W, I, P), A1 (X), A1 (R)), ie, the recursion for W.
Recursive equation (or system of recursive equations) can be solved in the performance, at least two essential conditions: firstly, should be given the initial value of variable (s) on which the recursion, and, secondly, be aware or the number of steps of recursion, or the value of a recursive variable must converge to a certain value.
The emergence of recursion equations in this system is not an accidental phenomenon. We received a recursion, moving, so to speak, from the heuristic information model of a living organism. By recursive methods account specialists working in the field of artificial intelligence, based on the formalization of ideas and methods underlying computer science. For example, A. Andrew wrote: "Recursion has become an important characteristic of the special programming language designed for solving problems of artificial intelligence" [37, pp. 223]. So, to solve even very complex task in the field of artificial intelligence (eg, the task of finding the shortest way out of the labyrinth (!) scheme, which, however, is known), you can use specially developed for the problems of artificial intelligence language of the "Prologue" [38 ]. It is safe to say that compiled for this task program (correct to say that the computer program will make itself and the expert gives it a certain set of input data) will contain a sequence of recursive calls. We can make one additional argument: the presence of recursion confirms widely held thesis that the brain can be likened to a kind of "reflective machine, and intellectual activity - processes occurring in it. We will specify, that the mathematical model of processes occurring in the reflective structures just and may be a system of recursive equations.
Get to, and solve using a computer such a system, at least for the beginning of that, just what is written above! But we can not do it because we do not know how to clearly write down the unknown operators A1, A2, A3, A4, A7, A8 suppose to start in human language, and then - on the computer. Can we say that we face an impasse and we need to return? In our journey we will do so. However, we note that the impasse can be different: in one case - this is impracticable, in principle, a monolith, in the other, a thin wall or to be clearing the blockage.
The work of our compatriot, the famous Russian-American scientist, professor, University of California, the founder of a new scientific direction - the reflexive management – V.A. Lefebvre let's hope that this is not a monolith. In his book "Reflection" and "Algebra of Conscience" (as well as in earlier works) contain ideas and specific techniques that may help overcome the impasse. Unfortunately, the author, for some reason could not read the books mentioned. True, the author is familiar with the earlier ideas of V.A. Lefebvre , which are based on the use of the apparatus of Boolean algebra. Even on the basis of reading the work the author allows himself to make optimistic conclusions. Next, we mention the recursion will not, and if this word, no, no, will meet on the text, then let this be a reminder that mysteriously, hopeful, alley we all the same visited.
While noting the practical and theoretical importance to the work of V.A. Lefebvre for the study of reflective structures, and the potential of an approach based on the study and solution of systems of recursive equations (assuming an explicit specification of member operators), we choose other path, that not brings us closer to the mountain too close distance. We note only that the presence of recursion in the system which included unpredictable external stimuli, suggests that discusses the information model (see Fig. 5 and 6) are cannot hard-coded machines. Theirs behavior can be very flexible and in a sense, even the unpredictable: "For here ... interfere authoritatively, cut, breaking the chain of ready-made, and then closing it ends in a new way each time a different way each time, in agreement with the new, previously not provided for any final circuit conditions and circumstances of external influence, an additional link - "thinking" [40, pp. 39].
A reflective machine, Boolean algebra, a system of recursive equations and ... consciousness, thinking. A Dryasdust a "food" perceives quiet, but the humanities, my God! He's so bait "does not take." To each his own. The quivering fallow deer prints the trace on pliable ground of the field sprinkled by dews an intricate pattern of freakish associations, and the the workaholic- horse drags own heavy vehicle on stony road.
When in the beginning, at our input in a labyrinth, the concept of algorithm with reference to work of a brain has been mentioned, it would be possible to recollect old and not so old disputes in occasion of the nature of its work – algorithmic it or not. And though these disputes have terminated as though anything, and debaters dispatch on different angles of a room, last works on creation of systems of an artificial intellect, in particular, - robotics, more increasing and more as though confirm correctness of "algoritmists".
If earlier only « desperate cybernetics », one of which was academician A.N.Kolmogorov, could tell, that « do not see any basic restrictions in the cybernetic approach to problems of a life and believe, that it is possible to analyze … and human consciousness with its all complexity methods of cybernetics » [41, with. 44], that now similar statements on sense are perceived by many easy enough, and for their confirming it is not necessary to refer on authorities at all.
Not going into detail of discussion of this interesting and extremely important problem, we shall state on this account some reasons which, certainly, have supporters and opponents. One of the main theses of opponents of the algorithmic concept of work of a brain reduces to a question: and how to be with creativity? The certain answer to it has given a number of the published works. In particular, one of books L.S. Altshuler and refers to, defiantly – « Algorithm of the invention ». The results received by D.S.Pospelov, D.Michi, I.N.Gorelov and some other authors can be carried To the same number from known to us of works.
Let's result some citations. « In often repeating situations of dialogue our daily speech is more similar to the standard standards, than on individual creative behaviour ». Or: « … it is easy enough to show, that the greater or smaller degree of stereotype of behaviour (and thinking) perfectly gets on in a head of the person with belief in its own non-standard, dissimilarity on others ». (we Shall add from themselves: than is this belief, how not a stereotype?). Further: « … thoughtless assurances of « originality », and even « greatness » everything are not less harmful, that is made by the person » [42, pp. 8, 14, 31]. Or such statement: « Many complex activities can be presented, using a set of the cores primitive » [43, p.224]. And, finally: « … psychological researches lead to the conclusion, that the brain stores the information in the form of patterns » [44, p. 84].
Completely agreeing with quoted authors, we also consider, that work of a brain including during work, can consist in realization of sequence of stereotypes. And unless a stereotype – not the same algorithm, hidden under name more familiar to general public? To us it is thought, that elementary steps, «bricks» of which process of thinking is under construction, not so are complex. The number of initial stereotypes at the person is not so great and if to take advantage of the classification of numbers offered by A.N.Kolmogorov it should be carried to averages that makes thousand or, as a last resort, tens thousand. Naming these numerical values, we start with quantity of concepts with which the person as each concept is conformed with a word operates, sometimes – group of words. The dictionary structure of actively used part of the majority of languages just makes such quantity.
And further the combination theory begins. From pair simple elements which and only, for example, one thousand, it is possible to receive half a million various combinations, and from three – more than hundred millions. The received combinations also can be combined among themselves, forming such a plenty of combinations which is comparable with greater or supergreater (on mentioned above classification) numbers to which do not have analogues in the Universe either by quantity of atoms forming it, nor on weight of a substance occuring it, etc. is unimaginable.
Any problem can be solved with the four arithmetic operations, which in turn reducible to a single operation - addition. Turing machine (which will be described in chapter four) perform all four basic steps: recording a character, read a character and a shift of the tape (or read head) in one discrete position, the change of state control device. However, various combinations of these elementary operations can be designed all of the existing algorithms, and all those which are created in the future. The difference is only in the order of folding "bricks" in their numbers. The most important feature of the human brain is the conscious ability to change the order of "placing" of stereotypes and, if necessary, change their content, preserving the form, ie, the essential feature of the algorithm.
With an enormous number of possible chains of stereotypes is difficult to escape the feeling that the next chain, generated by the brain, can not a stereotype. Not all stereotypes chain or chain-chain stereotype justified. Most of it is meaningless and have no right to exist. Of course, an absurd decision, which sometimes takes the human brain, show that the senseless chain sometimes also go to the "business". Nevertheless, the brain must be able to perform a procedure of choice. Will the deal in one or another variant? The easiest way to choose, certainly not realized in practice, except for the simplest cases - the so-called algorithm of the British Museum, ie, the exhaustive search of all the options. We can point to methods that substantially reduce the selection: the principle of dichotomy, branch and bound method, etc. Incidentally, the last time specialists pay close attention to the so-called "genetic algorithms". These algorithms are based on the same process occurring during the recombination of parental genes during the emergence of a new organism, lead to acceptable solutions. Why would our brain is able to fulfill part of their work using genetic algorithms?
Specialists who are opposed to the idea of the algorithmic work of the brain all the time worried about the question of creativity. What about creativity? Professionals may be concerned about the idea of the difficulty of placing the art in the Procrustean bed of formalization. But creativity, if it is a real creativity, always ends with the result. And as long as the creative result marks the end of a particular creative process, this fact would allow to assert that the brain works algorithmically. The last statement (in fact, deliberately expressed in the subjunctive mood) will now be discussed in the greater detail.
If conditions (baseline) of the creative process - the essence of the variables x1, x2, ... xn, and the creative result - the value of S, then we can assume that the function S = f (x1, x2, ... xn) is effectively computable [45, p.15 ]. Then, based on Church-Turing thesis [45, s.75], we can assert that the function f is computable by Turing, in other words - any creative process can be simulated on a universal Turing machine (see Chapter 4), ie, given a certain formal scheme.
On the other hand, the analysis of most of the creative process clearly shows that what is happening there is little resemblance to formal action. Why is this happening? I think that allowed the following options: 1. Church-Turing thesis "not working" as applied to information processes of the human brain (and, perhaps, and the brain of an animal). 2. There should be such a model, which, as a formal, in essence, would leave room for informal constructions. The first alternative is to find at least one effectively computable function (or the proof of its existence), which would be not computable by Turing. Of course, if it succeeded, "it" would look very convincing rationale not algorithmic nature of the brain. But "it" has not yet been done to anybody! Emotions about the informal nature of information processes of the brain just convinces the gullible. At the same time, one of the possible formal models with the "informal" displays will be shown below. As far as it is convincing - not judge us.
So, the creative process is completed, not only getting creative result S, but an algorithm f for this result. The aim is achieved by constructing the way to it, because if the algorithm f was not a man created, then there would have been the result of S. Church's thesis - Turing remained unshakable! Creativity, therefore, is first and foremost in the creation of the algorithm works. Sometimes, this algorithm remains unconscious, as some stages of its creation take place at a subconscious level. Another puzzling question: how to create "algorithm works"? Carry out the reasoning by analogy.
As soon as the function f is effectively computable, then the Turing procedure can be specified as f = φ (z1, z2, ... zk), where φ - an algorithm to construct an algorithm f, using a certain set of assumptions z1, z2, ... zk. Further, we can set φ = ψ (u1, u2, ... um), where u1, u2, ... um - a lot of new premises and carry out this process, if necessary, further. Ïîëó÷àåòñÿ ñâîåîáðàçíàÿ ðåêóðñèâíàÿ «âëîæåííîñòü» àëãîðèòìîâ f(φ(ψ(…)…). It is logical to assume that some function f (φ (ψ (...) ...), built under the scheme of sufficient depth of nesting, which has to form a very complex, as it were, an informal structure, can actually be put into correspondence with a sequence of quite formal procedures for φ, ψ etc. Human creative programs are, apparently, a great depth of nesting, but what - this is likely to be able to answer specially organized joint research of psychologists and mathematicians. The first (lowest) level of human thinking - thinking on the algorithm. In other words, the algorithms were once perceived and then remained unchanged, or subjected to minor modifications (stereotyped thinking). Extreme degree of such "thinking" Ilf and Petrov showed the example of the infamous Ellochka. Creative thinking implies, at least at least two levels, when the first level there are "blanks" (stereotypes), of which at the next level (again, on stereotyped procedures) creates new procedures that, in fact, not will seem so stereotypical. Obviously, the creative force of intellect to be in direct proportion to the depth of the procedural levels. This does not exclude mutual influence of these levels. The depth of creative thought - not direct dark well, it - most likely a tunnel created by lit and located opposite each other mirrors.
So, whatever it was, until the stop on the premise that the brain works algorithmically, but will not be distracted by the search algorithms of its work, limiting the presentation of their combinatorial, recursive nature. For us in this case is important not the specific algorithms and their design philosophy. But the remaining problems in the methodology of artificial intelligence, we, nevertheless, give up the attempt to discover these principles in some specific algorithms for simulating various brain functions. Such an approach is justified by the chosen strategy - not to approach the mountain is too close. Therefore, try to find a solution by moving along the conceptual path, in other words, based on fundamental results obtained in the theory of algorithms. But the more about that in the next chapter.
Chapter 4. The key to the secret door
When the process will be divided into
parts, studied and understood, it appears that
Offered in the third chapter of the information model of interaction between brain, body and environment when describing the various stages of evolution of living matter from faintly enlarged, low-quality picture. They reflect our desire only to answer the question - where and how information is transmitted. At least (most likely - or more) important issue - how this information is processed? The importance of this "how" has become for us even more obvious after attempts in the same third chapter "find" the location of the psychophysical boundary. Such an approach would seem to doom us to the inevitable failure in an effort to get an answer, because a holistic view of information processing the brain does not exist. Much of his work is unknown, especially when it comes to the conscious action of man.
Therefore, we will not talk about specific algorithms for processing information by the brain, but only of the principles of its processing. What's in this case is understood by the word "principle"?
Professionals working in the field of computers and programming (and not only them) aware of the principles of information processing in modern computers: the separation of information on the programs and data, team principle of operations, integration of teams in the program, the ability to interpret programs as data (in some cases vice versa), etc. This is all the principles.
You do not know how to implement specific algorithm, but, knowing the principles of its implementation, it is possible to draw certain conclusions on the computer, including on its structural organization. This methodological approach (from the principle of information processing to some of the principles of the brain), we will use to find the answer to the above question.
Say immediately that the knowledge of those principles of the computer we have almost no help, because, firstly, they are far from the principles of the brain, and secondly, they are initially difficult. At the same time accepted that the nature, building complex, has always been of prime. For this reason, as well as the previously mentioned thesis about the alleged "algorithmic" nature of the brain seems to us that the basis of a conceptual consideration of the problem and we should set that is denoted by the term "algorithm".
It is worth mentioning, and another, perhaps even more crucially, our choice. A. Turing, working principles of the machine, which became his name, guided by no means least one technique that is used in solving problems of mathematics. Mathematics - first of all people, therefore, solving the problem, he uses not only the professional techniques and methods of their science, but above all the ability and capacity of their mind. Thus, the idea of a Turing machine is inherently a certain qualities inherent in the thinking brain.
And finally, as if further confirming our choice, we agree with the statement of J. Veytsenbauma: "In the end, because everyone can learn how to simulate a universal Turing machine (on a universal Turing machine in front of it. – B.P.), we have by definition themselves have a universal Turing machine ". True, J. Veytsenbaum immediately adds: "This means that we, at least, the universal Turing machine" [46, p.109], indicating that "at least" the fact that we are any more complex machines, in us there is still "something", is not in it. Then we'll see what can be under this "something" to hide.
Turing machine, despite the fact that there is some temptation to see it structured education, first and only - a mathematical model of the processes of transformation of information. An attempt to "see" it brain structure is doomed to failure. We refer to the following example. The differential equation of the form:
a mathematical model of oscillatory processes, depending on the physical meaning and values of the coefficients a, b, c, f and a variable x, this equation describes the mechanical vibrations of piano strings and invisible electrical processes in the oscillatory circuit to radio or television receiver, etc. Physical and structural differences piano and TV are obvious, but the essence of the processes are similar, which confirms the above equation. However, no one would think based on the similarity equations say that the piano and TV are similar.
Similarly, on a Turing machine can, in principle, to reproduce the process of computer calculation of monthly salaries (practically do it in a highly unwise) and the same process when it executes man (we're talking about the possibility in principle of such a description). In each case, their principles of encoding information, their algorithms, etc., and therefore concludes that the Turing machine and the brain are similar, although they solve the same problem, then go against common sense. This is the most delicate definition of such intent.
Well, if compared Turing model with a functioning brain to look for non-structural congruence, but only an analogy in the principles of information processing? At best, then to say that this model can more or less adequately describes the process of information processing in the brain only, provided that the specified process algorithmic. However, we can not describe the Turing model in detail, since we do not know the specific algorithms for brain. The only thing that we can contend with a greater or lesser certainty - is that the principles of information processing in the Turing model is acceptable to use as an abstract model of information processes in the brain. Not enough right? Unfortunately, the really little, but, as we shall see later, even this seems to be extremely limited approach can be very far-reaching conclusions.
We will show that there are two types of Turing patterns - specialized and universal. On the basis of differences in these models (with substantial differences in principle) can be quite legitimate conclusions about the difference between the processes occurring in the simulated objects. Conversely, if some model processes the same, then there is reason to believe that the simulated phenomena occur equally. We remind once more that should be more cautious approach to the question of correlation of model processes and structures of the simulated objects. Turing model - a very abstract concept, so it can be in all cases are directly linked with the real processes occurring in the brain, and especially with its structure.
At the end of this section, we consider it necessary to explain again - why, trying to comprehend the essence of consciousness, we stopped for a Turing machine. Step one: the brain - the "machine", processing information. Step two: we were guided by the assurance that consciousness "is" in the brain, so the origins of consciousness should also look at processing information. Further, the third step we have taken as a postulate that the information is processed by the brain to some rules, the sequence of which - the essence of the algorithm. And finally, since the formal submission of the algorithm is a Turing machine, on the fourth step, it became clear that a formalized model for convenient searching essence of consciousness can be taken exactly it.
This explanation we do exclusively for readers of the first edition of the book (and possibly the second), which had criticized the author's primitivism approach to solving the problem. They say modern computer technology operates at the level of supercomputers, and the author of "busy" with some kind of "Turing machine". It's the last (now literally) age! This approach - the same as that of micromodules and microchips go to the level of punch cards and neon lights. These readers can answer is: it is not about implementation, but about principles; they tend to be sought not in trouble, but in a simple, but deeply, so quietly hidden.
Now a few comments to the layman. They can choose one of three lines of conduct. First - to gather the courage to continue to carefully and thoughtfully read more. Second - read understandably, do not attempt to delve into the complex. Third - look through the chapter to the end, which will be followed by the conclusions, and more to her not to return. The second option after the findings could return if they wish, and re-look at the complex to their proper positions.
Description of the Turing machine has a sufficiently large number of sources, including the popular, and could refer to its. But to the reader, layman could understand the essence of the future and to not turn to him reading the book in scientific researches, devoted several pages describing the principles of operation of this machine.
Turing machine - is not a machine in the sense in which that word is generally used. This computational model or model of information transfer, however, in describing the structure of the machine and the process of its operation uses some technical terms that can probably use the term "machine". It is important to note that, firstly, a Turing machine works with the alphabetical presentation of information, ie, with words or word sequences, and secondly, it is proved that any, is the arbitrary information without loss can be encoded in any alphabetical the representation (language). For example, those who work or have a computer at home, know and understand that any information provided in the computer (text, numbers, graphics, sound, moving images) will eventually be written as a sequence of binary digits (0 and 1), called binary words or binary codes.
Turing machine - a computer model in which the computational process brought to the most, that neither is on the most basic steps or operations. Everybody knows that any calculation of how difficult they would not have been reduced to implement the four arithmetic operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In this sense, the Turing machine, too, four operations, but much more simple than those referred to arithmetic. What kind of operation will be discussed below.
But first let us ask ourselves the question - why we want to reduce the conversion of information to the consistency of some of the most basic steps that could be called a "quantum of information processing? The answer is simple: it gives us an opportunity to distract from the content information (content information in the world, one might say, varied to infinity, and a variety of often fails to see the essence of the phenomenon), and focus only on the principles of its treatment. In this sense, any problem (the problem) on a Turing machine is solved in the same way.
Turing machine can be imagined as a "device" consisting of the following "parts":
- Infinite or semi-infinite (ie, bounded on one side) tape divided into cells, in each such cell can be written in one alphabetic character (a letter);
- - Reading-writing head (say, like a tape);
- - Control unit, which is one clock cycle of the machine performs the following operations: 1. read from tape cell, which is located opposite the head, one character 2. entry into the cell a new symbol, 3. move the head one cell to the right or left, and finally, 4. change it status.
The sequence of these operations is given the structure of the control device, and under the structure does not refer to some, say, an electronic circuit, a record that defines the way the functioning of machines. Often one form of such a record is a rectangular table whose rows correspond to the symbols of the alphabet, which operates the machine, and columns - state of the control device. The cells of the table are written by groups composed of three characters (the troika): symbol input alphabet, the symbol of the direction of motion of the head and the symbol of the state. Schematic representation of the Turing machine, as well as some version of its tables are shown in Fig. 11, 12.
Fig.11 Scheme of the Turing machine
In these figures the following notation: Si - character read from tape, Sj - a symbol that is placed on the tape; q0, q1, q2 (in summary form - qi, qj) - symbols of state machines; ! - The symbol of the state of stopping machine; Q - symbol of memory that stores these states, the symbols H, R, L denote the direction of the head, respectively, right, left, the team head to remain stationary; P - the symbol of the device that controls the movement of the head, and finally, in our particular Example 1, l, + - symbols outside the alphabet, are written on the tape, while, as is often the custom in the description of a Turing machine, the Greek letter l is designated as "null character", indicating that in the corresponding cell of the tape is blank.
Fig.12 Table functioning of the Turing machine, summarizing the number in unary notation little system.
The work of Turing machines, using, for example a table (see Fig. 12) can be described as follows. If at some point in time the controller was able to q0 (vertical column, labeled q0), and the head of the cell opposite to it at this point was, reads the symbol 1 (the horizontal line of the table, marked with 1), then this cell is recorded an empty symbol l, ie, erased recorded there earlier character, the head moves one cell to the right, and the controller goes into state q2. Described the action as one tact of the machine.
Usually, when considering the operation of a Turing machine, it is believed that the initial time on the tape recorded some input word consisting of a sequence of symbols, the head is in a standard position, for example, opposite the left-most symbol of the input word, and the controller is in the initial state designated, say, a symbol of q0. This initial position is often called the term "initial configuration of machine.
If the problem has a solution, then after a finite number of cycles the head movement is terminated (in this case it appears in a standard position), the controller goes into a specific final state, and the tape is recorded for a new word. Primary input word can be identified with the initial conditions of the problem, outgoing (output) - with the solution. In this final word may be in the area of tape, which was first input word, which, of course, erased, and can be written in a new place ribbons, ie, with preservation of the input word: everything depends on the specific type of machine table.
It is convenient to consider the work of the Turing machine as a sequence of so-called configurations. Other single configuration - this word is recorded on tape to this tact of the machine. Under the letter, which are situated opposite the crown, the symbol of the state is signed, which is a machine. An example of the first three neighboring configurations for the machine shown in Fig. 12 with the initial configuration
l 1 1 1 + 1 1 l,
shown in Figure 13. The original word in this case is a record of conditions: to lay down in the unary numeral system of three (3 edinichki) and 2 (two edinichki). If we trace all the configurations that arise in solving this problem, the final configuration will
l 1 1 1 1 1 l,
ie actually received the result 5, presented in unary form.
Fig.13 Configuration of the Turing machine
We have already said that if the problem or the problem has a solution, it can always be constructed Turing machine (ie, composed of the table), which has a finite number of cycles will transfer the initial configuration (problem conditions) to the final (output) decision. Use a Turing machine as a practical calculator, of course, makes no sense. First, not all information is conveniently encode in alphabetic form (but possible). Secondly, (this is especially important), the reduction of computation to the very detailed sequence of elementary steps makes this process so slow that even very simple tasks on this model will be solved too long, not to mention difficult. In this connection, never, apparently, has not had the idea of constructing a Turing machine for solving practical problems, but as a theoretical model, it was very convenient, important and necessary.
Described by us model a Turing machine can be called a specialized model, since for each specific task must be developed its own specific table machine. After reviewing the work of specialized Turing machine, we want to draw attention to one important fact. Elementary structural unit of the machine is a table cell. The information contained in a cage, gives one measure of the machine, which consists of the following: perception from the tape input symbol (an incentive), changes in machine status (the equivalent of the feedback), recording to tape a new symbol (the reaction). This cycle of the machine may well be associated with the accepted mechanism for advancing the psychology of excitement: the so-called scheme of T-O-T-E (test-operation-test-result).
It is proved that the solution to any problem having a solution can be constructed so-called universal Turing machine, ie, such a machine, which has a single, strictly fixed table describing her work. For example, for a universal Turing machine, that utilizes a binary alphabet, a table (chart) of its control unit can be found in the monograph of Minsky "Calculations and machines" .
Figure 14 Universal machine; distribution zones in the interpretation
The idea of a universal machine is that its initial configuration on the tape is not only from the input speech, referred to earlier, but still one word that can be called a description of any specialized machine (see Fig. 14). This description is nothing like a sequence of linear two-dimensional record table. For example, a table, shown in Fig. 12, if it is deployed from left to right and top to bottom, can be represented as a sequence of "fives" symbols (input symbol, a symbol of status and "troika" of characters, recorded in the corresponding cell of the table):
In the future, such a linear entry of the table of the Turing machine is called the term own description. The work of the universal model can be described as (of course, very simplistically) as follows.
Universal machine, while in the initial configuration, reads the first symbol input word (problem conditions). Then, according to the state, which should be modeled specialized machine, is in the word - write the simulated machine - the appropriate "top five". Further, by recording the remaining three characters of the "five" defines the new state of the simulated specialized machine, which is written on the tape character and direction of movement of the head of specialized machines. Then read the next character input word, is the next "five" and so on to obtain the final configuration.
The purpose of this summary can be opened in this way. Universal machine as it reads on the tape is an explanation of a specialized machine and from this description does what it did to a specialized machine that is working on the principle of interpretation (emulation). The very principle of interpretation lies in the consistent implementation of once and for all laid down rules (instructions). We use to explain quite simply interprets the instructions, taken by us with minor changes from the book of BA Trakhtenbrot "Algorithms and computing machines" [46, s.126].
Note 1. Survey on the tape cell (single), which he signed the letter. (Here and further, in this sequence of instructions, signed by unit letter denotes status symbol interpreted by machines.)
Note 2. Look for a table column, labeled the same letter, which was signed by the surveyed cell.
Note 3. In the column survey found three letters, which is located at the intersection with the line, designated the same letter, which is inscribed in the cell being.
Note 4. Replace the letter of the cell being the first letter of the surveyed three.
Note 5. If the surveyed "troika" (three characters) the second character is a sign of completion of calculations, for example, the sign "!", Then stop - the process is completed.
Note 6. If the surveyed "troika" second symbol is the symbol breakpoint heads - the letter H, then replace the letter, signed by the cell being the third letter of the surveyed "troika".
Note 7. If the cell being the second symbol is a sign of movement head to the left - the letter L, then erase the letter, signed by the surveyed cell, and left its record third letter of the surveyed "troika".
Note 8. If the surveyed "troika" the second character is a sign of movement head to the right - the letter R, then erase the letter, signed by the surveyed cell, and the right to write the third letter of the surveyed "troika".
Note 9. If you view the input word is not finished, go to the direction of 1, otherwise finish the process.
If this system to encode instructions for the chosen system of "fives" (which, of course, is an extremely difficult task feasible), the resulting record can be regarded as the own description of the universal machine. It is noteworthy that the description of the algorithm (ie, a sequence of instructions) almost does not use symbols outside the alphabet interpreted by machines, and therefore this algorithm can be written to a "home" language of the universal machine (in the above written instructions - this is an ordinary Russian, in translation - English). In fact, in his own description, made up of instructions 1-9, the symbols interpreted by machines will be used only three standard symbols R, L, H. This shows that the reading the description of the algorithm of a specialized machine versatile machine is a standard way, as the system requires the guidance and does not depend on the specific form of the description (if adopted by the system of coding information). In other words, if we have a universal machine, it is unchanged its table can solve any problem. This circumstance, we attach the utmost importance.
It is easy to see that the work of the universal model is still slower than the corresponding specialized, but this circumstance we should not worry because it is not a practical implementation of a structure, whether specialized or universal, but only on the model.
Of course, referred to several earlier quantum information processing biological model (a stimulus change in the state, response) if the latter is a universal Turing machine, in fact ceases to be so as it turns out to consist of a sequence of more elementary steps to ensure the mechanism of interpretation. But each such new elementary step again consists of: read-write character movement heads, changes in the state. In other words, the principle of the universal Turing machine is the same and specialized, although the principle of the implementation of the algorithm - a qualitatively different.
When considering the Turing machine as an "algorithmic" model of the brain of an animal or human, we can still only talk about the most general properties of the model in its most general form. These common attributes include: the ability of models to learning, its evolution, plasticity and stability of the model, as well as another important property, which will be discussed below. We turn first to a specialized model shown in Fig. 15.
Fig.15 Tapes for specialized models
Specialized model operates with the following set of characters:
- Input symbols tape
- Output symbols tape
- The characters, describe the table control device.
Input symbol can be associated with the signals of the external world, enters the brain through the set of relevant receptors. This definition may also include a portion of the signals produced by the brain and the circuits of feedback sent to the input and therefore are like part of the external environment.
Since the output symbols can be compared various command signals to the body organs. To output information can also be attributed some portion of the memory elements created in ontogeny. However, under certain conditions, the latter can be input, since, despite the fact that this group of characters relates to the internal manifestations of the model or the simulated object, in fact much of it is "addressed" to the outside world.
Let us consider the group of characters describing the table control unit in more detail. It, in turn, can be divided into three subgroups.
The first - a subgroup of external symbols that identify the table row. It is important to note that when it comes to the Turing machine as a computer, then this subgroup coincides with the previously mentioned input symbols tape. But when it comes to the Turing model of the brain, something about the coincidence not speak, we should talk only about the conformity. For example, to "external symbols tape we could, for example, include an image imprinted on the retina. The corresponding external symbol of the subgroup of characters that identify the rows in the table, it is apparently "standard" of the image stored in memory (in fact, the visual image itself consists of a set of elementary symbols, but as examples to the said comparison is quite acceptable). Although considered a subgroup of characters matched by us to external signals, it actually has a dual nature: on the one hand, this is a reflection of the external world, on the other - a reflection of the internal functional and structural characteristics of the brain that appear in the phylogeny and ontogeny. For the rigid model of the brain of a subgroup is constant during the life of the individual; model of brain plasticity allows for variability subgroup.
The second - a subgroup of internal characters, which identify the columns of the table. For the Turing machine symbols of this subgroup form a set of states of the model. The higher the power of this set, the more difficult, ceteris paribus, a possible behavior of the model. Many states of the model is discrete. When it comes to the brain, then a discrete set of its states may be only a convenient abstraction, which allows to describe the place in it a continuous process. It is obvious that a group of characters states characterized by a purely internal nature of the model, and thus the brain.
Third - the subgroup of characters, forming the troika of the table. Among the symbols of each of the troika - the ones mentioned earlier external symbols and symbols of states. But if these characters are in another place the table, then one must assume that corresponding to the real brain signals have a different code representation. In addition, among the symbols of "triples" there is another symbol that controls movement of the head in the model. And we have also attributed to internal symbols having the nature of similar nature, character states.
In the specialized models can try to consider two ways to separate tapes into zones to represent different information. One way in which information environment and information about his own description presented in different zones of tape, which underlines the incoherence of these types of information (tape "a" in Fig.15). The second method, when both species are recorded in the same zone (Ribbon «b» in Fig.15). Soon we shall see that the first way of specialized models actually can not be realized. It should be specially noted that the presence on the tape "of his own description, if the model is regarded as a computer, just do not want, but when it comes to the modeling of information processes in the brain, the existence of such a description is necessary.
In the specialized models, as noted above, the structure of the control device is configured to solve a problem or a single set, considered as a single task, which corresponds to a set of algorithms. Such a model can work as follows. Reading head reads the words from the band "information environment", it produces a reaction in accordance with laid down in the controller algorithms, and writes them in the zone "reaction to the external environment." Information recorded in this zone is temporary in nature: there is a new external action, is written a new reaction, and the old is deleted. In addition, this model provides for each pair of stimulus-response "to record in the area of memory.
Purpose of this and the following sections - an attempt to bridge the gap between the evolution of the emergence and growth of consciousness, described in the section "The long road to consciousness" and the Turing model of consciousness. The possibility of constructing such a bridge - a certain guarantee of conjecture about the nature of consciousness.
If we take the model in Figure 1, it can be placed in the specialized Turing machine with a rigidly fixed table control device. Various simple organisms, multicellular simple - worms, insects, etc., with different algorithms for processing the input information in a specialized Turing models correspond to different tables. The main characteristic of this model - its rigidity. The behavior of the organism can be quite complex (eg, bees), but nevertheless, it is determined by a rigid program, which in the model corresponds to a fixed structure of the control device.
The diversity of the simplest organisms in the surrounding nature can be assigned a different set of specialized models with fixed structure. We call such a model - "Specialized rigid model."
In what direction can develop such a rigid model, to become the more flexible and thus the better adapted? In the information model, we have seen, the flexibility achieved by the emergence of feedback loops. How can this be implemented in the Turing model? Obviously, this can be achieved with the advent of the properties changeability structure control device.
Variable structure can not realize a rigidly fixed algorithm, and the set of algorithms, which makes the model an important property of ductility (flexibility), it is comparable with similar properties inherent in the real brain (the brain of the second type). We call a model with reconfigurable structure - "a specialized plastic model."
The theory of algorithms are not described Turing machine with reconfigurable structure, since the ability to rebuild does not make the theory of these machines is nothing new: this machine can always be considered as a combination of several specialized machines with hard work programs for each. As a theoretical model mutability can be used automata of von Neumann , which at one time have been proposed as a model of reproduction. However, all these very interesting questions lie beyond the scope of our consideration.
It should be borne in mind that the volatility structure control device can not be controlled, otherwise unpredictable influence of the environment, as well as mutations can lead to, say, superplasticity models that would be "disadvantageous" to preserve the characteristics of the simulated body.
The monitoring process, of course, must go through the feedback that we have previously observed in the information model in Figure 5. How this control can be implemented in the Turing model? This requires a mechanism for reading information describing the structure of the control devices, and devices for feeding this self-description on the tape machine, then it may be, for example, compared with the record of a certain standard that is stored on tape. The comparison can be produced by a series of symptoms that signal the admissibility or inadmissibility of the borders mutability model. However, in such a use Turing model, generally speaking, there is no need to introduce some standard and carry with him the comparison.
In the theory of Turing machines are known concept of self-applicability machine and, accordingly, not self-applicability machine. They say that a Turing machine is applicable to its account (self-applicability), if it recycles its own entry in the table control unit (own description) in a word and stops. If the station does not occur, or if the resulting word is read in non-standard head position, then the Turing machine not self-applicability. The reader is recommended to remember that the mechanism of reading its own description, we talked in the section "The long road to consciousness".
Usually, the terms self-applicability, not self-applicability understood to be the property of machines or self-applicability not self-applicability. In our work, the term self-applicability is given a broader interpretation. Self-applicability - is a process, as a result of a machine that is applicable to the description of its own. Similarly, we can expand the concept of not self-applicability. Thus, when it comes to self-applicability or not self-applicability Turing machine, it is assumed that in such a car "built in" additional mechanisms of recoding the two-dimensional table, the control unit into a linear recording and filing the record on tape. If no such mechanism, then a case can be denoted by the term "Turing machine without the self-applicability."
Attribute self-applicability model can be associated with such its ability as "recognition of itself." We assume that any well-functioning model of the self-applicability. If the model self-applicability - so it identifies itself, not self-applicability - hence, the model has changed, do not suggest that it is - the model as it was before, as self-applicability.
Thus, self-applicability model can be regarded as a model of information processing in the body with enough plastic in control brain. The boundaries of the plasticity of this model are determined by a zone of self-applicability, which has a specific range for each of the specialized model. Between the structure of the control device of specialized models and boundaries of its self-applicability surely there is a rigid connection: some structures allow for more variability, while others - less. This point can be related, for example, the ability of different animals to varying degrees of education and training. Henceforth we will call such a model - "a specialized plastic model with self-applicability.
Assume the following analogy (it seems quite acceptable). Information on the tape - it's all or almost all of that accumulated experience as a model in the "ontogeny" (in real life - reflections, worked out an animal, or social and personal experience of a person). Exclusion of "almost all", perhaps, is his own description: it must appear when you create a model. You can, however, propose a mechanism for reading out information from the control unit in the area of "self-description" in the process model, but it will not be quite a Turing machine, and something more, as noted above. The information is a description of the structure of the control device, can be identified with that part of the information that animals (and, in particular, in humans) is transmitted genetically. This division of the information accumulated in ontogeny and phylogeny, we assume a sufficiently conditional: it is possible that some types of data recorded on the tape can be transmitted genetically, and, conversely, certain changes in the structure of control device appear in the "ontogeny".
Therefore, as some of the subtotal note the following. The information accumulated on the tape during the "life" of a separate instance of the model, we assume individual experience model, this information is at the "death" model instance is lost and "reproduction" models "posterity" is not transmitted. Information forming the recording operation algorithm control device, also lost in the "doom" a separate instance, but since it, in our assumptions, a "genetic" in nature, such information can be transmitted to posterity. "Evolution" of such a model can be thought of as a slow down from generation to generation, modified entries algorithm operation control device. Here we can assume two mechanisms for the implementation of this change.
The first mechanism. Some of the information recorded on the tape, re-encoded and transmitted in small portions in the recording of the algorithm operation control device. However, it follows, first, that "personal experience" too, as it is transmitted genetically. However, the pieces of information transmitted from a "population" to the other can be so small that even with long-term monitoring will remain elusive. Secondly, this corresponds to a peculiar conception of the Turing machine, working together with the von Neumann machine. On such a "tandem" we mentioned above. I should say that the theory of the two co-working models yet.
The second mechanism. Small changes directly in the recording of the algorithm functioning control device, ie in the table of the Turing machine, arise spontaneously. The positive "mutations" are fixed, negative - are lost. This second mechanism of evolution of specialized Turing model corresponds to the traditional view of the evolution of living organisms. This model, although has the ability to study and control of the property of self-applicability, has a significant disadvantage, for just the limited properties of learning.
Recall that the structure of the control device in the specialized model is actually fixed, and "birth" of each new model instance by passing the original, raw version of the framework (we're not talking about those skills that are passed on "hereditary" and had been recorded in the control device) . Thus, learning each new version of the model in addition of new records on the tape must be accompanied by some change in the structure of the model.
We can assume that if Turing machine with such a simple table has the property of self-applicability, it is enough to make this table a small change in how the machine ceases to be such, and therefore disappears ability to control the limits of the plasticity. Of course, the not self-applicability machine also implements some algorithm. But what is permissible in the model, can be fatal for the organism. Perhaps the table of the Turing machine, which describes the actual processes of information processing in the real brain, if such a table was created, would have been less critical to small changes. However, the existence of the borders of these changes in the specialized model is easy to guess. This establishes for each plastic model with specialized self-applicability hard limit - the ceiling of its possibilities, therefore, each such model, we can say fatal predestination.
When we reviewed the work of Turing machine, then outside our field of view, the question remains, how the information is considered to be the input for the machine, gets to the tape in the zone input. Indeed, when we are talking only about the input information, the issue is not important: on it and input that comes from somewhere, and, consequently, its mechanism of entry into the input area does not apply the principles of the model.
The question is posed differently, if some of the information from the output of the model arrives at its input (channels 4 and 5 in Figure 5). What is this information? If we continue the argument in terms of the Turing model, it should be noted that the information or we rewrite in the front zone of a feed from her other bands, or the information coming in through the entrance area of the control device. Regarding the first case (that is, rewriting the data in the input area from other areas), then this process is described by the standard, as defined in the Turing model, ie introduction of additional teams in the table describing the operation of the control device.
Mechanism of transmission of the second type of control device to the tape, ie, transfer records of the algorithm of the machine (for example, recording a two-dimensional table as a linear sequence of "fives") at the outer zone of the tape as the input word, we defined as the process of self-applicability.
Question of the self-applicability Turing machines so far not developed far enough. Therefore premature to speak, for example, on the theory of self-applicability, as the section of the theory of algorithms, although, in our view, development in this direction would be relevant.
If the machine self-applicability, in that it recycles its own entry? We believe that this is one of the most sensitive issues relating to the study of self-applicability, and in this sense it is closely linked to the second question in the part, which finds its Insufficient developed.
It is appropriate to bring a single utterance of M. Minsky: "...what happens if the machine (universal. - B.P.) to compare its own description? We can expect that in this case the machine will be "paralyzed" because it would be endlessly repeating cycles of interpreting and will never make any calculations. First, such events seem to be entertaining, then they are a nuisance, and, finally, we are forced to conclude that they demonstrate insurmountable obstacles to our research” [48, ñ.143-144].
Instead, the concept of self-applicability seemingly can use the more common term - feedback: it is essentially the elements of such a connection in self-applicability Turing's model are present. Practice analysis of control systems, both living and man, shows that the presence of feedback in such systems the rule rather than the exception, and therefore communication process self-applicability Turing model to the circulation of information in the feedback channel must not sound strange.
However, this is not quite normal, so to speak, classical feedback in the organization of which a portion of the information processed by the system, is transmitted from its output to the input: here the output of the input is not circulating in the system information, and information describing the system, if you want - information constituting "image" of the system, so more correctly, seems to say that the information is transmitted to the input from the output, as well as from inside the system. The theories of such "feedback" does not exist yet, but it is clear that such "feedback" can bring in the new system quality characteristics, different from the traditional, such as changes in stability, sensitivity, etc. If we use philosophical terminology, it seems, we should recognize that self-applicability is a reflection of a model of its own structure, a way which is its own description. For such self-reflection can be employed and another term - a reflection. It is worth noting that the mathematical analog of this phenomenon is recursion, which we mentioned in the previous chapter.
Everything in this world is somehow often unclear to us, purposes. In other words, there was no or useless things. Even the bell in the dome clown played its scanty, but the mandatory role. A measure of utility, applied to the "forms" self-applicability , without much inquiring glance on our part, points to the answer: self-applicability and self-control are related.
Natural biological systems, in contrast to artificial cybernetic do not have a specially designed embedded control devices, control functions are performed by the system itself. It follows that if the model is covered by a similar type of "feedback" and is then a self-applicability, it confirms the identity of itself and, consequently, the validity of the algorithm implementation on which it is configured. It is therefore quite justified the assertion that the process of self-applicability (primary reflection) - is a process of self-control, arising evolutionarily and employee goals more stable and more complete adaptation of a living organism to changing conditions. If plasticity is needed as a mechanism for adaptation to the environment, the self-applicability - this sensor is saying - necessary changes. But at the same time the self-applicability is - a watchman, warning against excessive enthusiasm restructuring.
Can the brain, a model which is a specialized Turing machine with reconfigurable structure and the self-applicability, give rise to anything more than a plastic model of the brain with the property of learning and controlling mechanism? The answer to this question must be sought in the analysis of languages, works with specialized plastic model with the self-applicability.
We can point to the existence of the following languages:
- The input language (the language of the environment, the language of incentives);
- Representation Language reactions;
- The language of information in memory;
- A language for describing the control unit (language for writing "fives" from which a table).
This last (the fourth in this list) is made up of some code representations of characters input language (character stimuli), the output symbols of language (symbols reactions), as well as symbols of states of the control device and the symbols that denote the direction of movement of the head, which by their meaning can also be attributed to the group of characters states.
If the first two components of the fourth language, as well as the first three of these languages can be considered extrinsic to the model, the latter three components of the fourth language of purely internal. But this is precisely the components of language, not the language itself. Therefore, it seems that something solid, having completed a certain quality, specialized models with the self-applicability can not produce (in addition, as mentioned above). It must, however, note the following.
Process of the self-applicability in addition to their basic control functions passing model provides an opportunity to "dating" with a description of its own structure, that is, as it allows it to "realize" itself. Nevertheless, a true "understanding" its own structure in a specialized model does not work, because in the self-applicability this model to its input receives mixed characters of the alphabet, as was mentioned above, the model has no mechanism to separate them on the external characters of the alphabet and their own, internal symbols.
Wanting to find the self-applicability specialized machine any familiar analogy, we can probably imagine a strange mirror. It reflects not our whole figure, and some of its fragments. Missing is replaced by being behind us the background, and we looked in the mirror, for some reason can not understand - what pieces of reflection consistent with our body, and what - background.
If we compare with a similar model of the mammalian brain, it must be said that the latter, apparently, there is an element of self-awareness, but it is integrated with the perception of the environment. Therefore, the animal is unable to perceive themselves apart from the surrounding world, in other words, in the brain, described by this model can not be true consciousness, a sense of self, identity. That is why it makes no sense to tape a specialized machine to allocate a separate area for their own description, as mentioned above. This fact further confirms the "underdeveloped" channel feedback model in Figure 5.
Now consider the model described by a universal Turing machine (Fig. 16). A universal model for working with the same groups of characters that were listed earlier for the specialized models, though, you need to keep in mind that all the characters of these groups are now the only symbols of the tape. As for those it, form the table of the universal machine, it is a purely internal character. They can, in extreme cases, only match tape symbols (for example, symbols of states), otherwise they have their own special inner essence, not necessarily reflect the nature of input and output signals of the model. In this model, the information contained on the tape or come to it, can be divided into the following areas:
- Current data from the external environment;
- The set of algorithms to model;
- Collection of data about the environment;
- A set of data models;
- Own description;
- Data on current reactions.
Note that between the information in the areas of "collection of data about the model" and "own description," there is a fundamental difference between: the first is stored in the ontogeny "model, the second are the structural properties and, in particular, is genetically determined. In addition, the first, as we shall see, is "conscious" information, the second - is data on the structure of the model that "awareness" is not directly subject. The control unit of this model performs standard operations such rewriting words, placing signs, localization  and, possibly, a number of some standard operations to ensure the universality of the model, ie, its work on the principle of interpretation. At the initial stage of the model almost all areas of tape almost empty: the one among a few, there should be written translation algorithm (translation) pairs the external effects - output the information "out of shape" the data in the form of "algorithm" (the creation of a stereotype). The principle of interpretation of the data as an algorithm (program), as well as the algorithms as the data is known in the practice of modern programming, and, apparently, this "discovery" is a reflection of real-world phenomena.
Fig.16 Tape universal model
Zone tapes - from left to right:
-Description of the algorithms and memory
Even at a fixed algorithm for creating stereotypes (ie, a conversion of data in the program) of the last in this model can be arbitrarily large. And if you admit the possibility of even a limited change in this "persistent" algorithm, stereotypes may no longer seem so. We can see that learning in this model is not the way the restructuring, and by recording on tape (if necessary, then erase) all new and new algorithms. Thus, we can suggest that the upper level of learning of the universal Turing model has no theoretical limits and is limited only by memory and time factor. As for "evolution" of a universal model, it must have the same mechanism as in the specialized model, ie carried out by slow changes in recording operation algorithm control device. However, as the principles of the functioning of the universal model (at least from the perspective of today's level of understanding of this issue) is optimal, then the changes should not touch the structure of the control device, ie, operating principles, and, for example, the empowerment of conversion algorithm, more memory, etc. In contrast to the specialized models, where the variability structure was a measure of its plasticity, a universal model of the structure of the control unit should not be tunable, because the variability can easily lead to a loss of universality. The plasticity of this model is achieved by modifying the information on the tape. Therefore, we call this model - "rigid universal".
The author does not currently known to work, wherever conducted studies on the classification of the universal Turing machines or are considering the relationship of certain specific structural features of the property of universality. But it is safe to say that their number (for the chosen system of coding information) is not so great. Therefore, the universal model for the role of the self-applicability, if the latter, there must be some - namely to prevent the process of "mutation", "recombination", etc. a restructuring of the control device, in which she may lose the property of universality.
It should be noted that the realization of the self-applicability in a universal Turing machine must not be pursued as a specialized model. There was enough to file as an input word own description and implement surveillance: the self-applicability or not the self-applicability. According to the original location information on the tape of the universal machine to put it in the conditions under which could be the process of reading their own description, information on the tape must be recorded as shown in Fig.17.
The right side of tape - this entry in the table of the universal machine U in the form of "fives", this part is interpreted as the control device U algorithm. The left side of tape (in the normal situation here is written input word is processed by an algorithm, located on the right tapes) - also own description, subject to interpreting processing algorithm. With this arrangement the initial information, both on tape Fig.17, and under the principles of which are incorporated in interpreting the algorithm, we must come to the assertion that a universal Turing machine interprets not self-applicability.
Fig.17 Tape universal model for organizing the process self-applicability.
Indeed, the algorithm is written on the tape on the right (machine description U), - it interprets the algorithm: all that it "can do" - an interpretation of the words on the tape on the left, as the algorithm. But the left, in fact, written algorithm (machine description U), moreover, the algorithm interprets. Therefore, treatment of left word actually comes down to his interpretation and, consequently, the implementation of the algorithm. This leads to the fact that the reader head of the machine U will move to areas of tape to the left of those shown in Fig.17. If there is nothing written down, then the head will move to the left indefinitely, which leads to the conclusion that not self-applicability universal model, if its tape will be organized as shown in the figure.
Fig.18 Tape the self-applicability universal model
Zone tapes in the picture - left to right:
- The test word
- The algorithm specialized machine
- The machine U description
- The machine U description
However not self-applicability interpreting the model can be made the self-applicability, if left two areas shown on Fig.17, to arrange two more zones, one of which is to write an algorithm of some specialized machinery, and in the far left - for some input word processed this specialized algorithm (see . Fig.18). We can not tell anything specific about this algorithm and the word that it handles, but if we start from the principle that the system is itself a controlled, it must be like to call, testing algorithm, which handles some tested data (input test) . If the principle of self-control to carry out consistently, it must be recognized that the input Testing word must coincide with its own description of the specialized testing machines.
Thus, we arrive at a kind of double-self-applicability. It consists of interpreting the universal self-applicability and self-applicability machine some specialized testing machine, "built" in the tape machine interpreting. It is important to note that the self-applicability can not be the first place without the second self-applicability, and vice versa.
Previously, it was noted that a universal Turing self-applicability model is realized at some internal version, which is a consequence principle of interpretation. Now, this conclusion should be clarified, as you have to say self-applicability is also a testing machine. Principles of test programs to verify that artificial cybernetic systems, in particular computers, show that these tests are based on internal functional and structural properties of controlled devices. Thus, the introduction of a testing machine does not violate our conclusion that the process of self-applicability universal Turing model is performed entirely on its internal language. If you come back to the mirror analogy, which we have used in describing the self-applicability specialized model, the self-applicability of the universal model corresponds to an ordinary mirror in which we clearly see ourselves as separated from the surrounding background.
It is not hard to guess that as soon as it was assumed that the basis of information processes in the brain of animals, is a specialized Turing model, it is natural to conclude on the comparison of the universal Turing model of the human brain. Such comparisons will be made and in several subsequent chapters of the book. However, for the sake of rigor, and not wanting to give the reader a reason to reproach the author's bias, we will in this section to talk only about the models.
If we consider the previously mentioned processes of the self-applicability in terms of their oversight functions in specialized and universal models, it is necessary to note the following. The model does not exist in isolation, but is in some medium and exposed by this environment, in particular, informational influences. A "viable", of course, is such a model, which sells its controlling functions are not occasional, but constant, or - almost constantly. In other words, the process of the self-applicability, because it has a duration, must be periodic.
In addition to the verification process in the model occur, and other information processes, and therefore without significance question and answer it. How is the interaction of control with the other processes? Regarding the periodicity (for example, what is the significance of this period in different types of models) to say anything definite at present not possible. What is clear is that the magnitude of this period is due to both the model parameters (eg processing speed) and some parameters of the medium (eg, frequency and intensity of external influences). A definite opinion, we think can be done on the interaction process control (the self-applicability) and the other information processes taking place in the model.
Let us first consider this interaction as an example specialized Turing model. Suppose that at some point in time the model begins to transform words, which is its own description. If it is the self-applicability, then a finite number of steps will occur processing of the word, and read head the model stops at a certain standard position relative to a fixed position. Let this position will coincide with the left symbol of the input words on the tape, and a code mapping information received by this time in the model of the external environment.
According to the algorithm prescribed table model, the latter converts the input word, write it on the tape resulting word, and again returns to the self-applicability. You will then begin processing the next input word, etc. Regularities question. What happens if the input word in the appropriate area of tape does not arrive? Obviously, the model will not perform the prescribed her a specialized algorithm, although the process of the self-applicability will be periodically performed. Thus, the conclusion: information processes in a specialized Turing models (except the process of the self-applicability ), activated the external environment.
We now turn to a universal model. Clarification made in the previous section, says that the universal model is self-applicability only (subject to the proper functioning of the mechanism of interpretation), when the head model, after reading on the tape 'own description, "moved into the zone tape, which recorded a specialized algorithm. In the particular case, as noted earlier, this may be a test. This leads, generally speaking, an intriguing finding. As the tape of the universal model recorded specialized algorithms, for their revitalization does not necessarily flow to the tape input word directly from the external environment; algorithms can be activated internal process of the self-applicability. In other words, the universal self-applicability Turing model has the property of internal information activity. How can you not remember the activity of the brain phantom, which we discussed in the section "Was the first word? At the same time in this model is not prohibited by the situation where a specialized algorithm, recorded on tape, will begin its implementation by means of interpreting the mechanism after the filing of the input word, ie will be activated directly outside influence. The latter situation, however, it may be possible if the model of the process of the self-applicability is not satisfied.
Thus, the universal Turing model admits two fundamentally different modes of implementation of algorithms, recorded on tape. If the process of the self-applicability is not made, then the algorithms are activated by external influences. If the self-applicability takes place, information processes, corresponding to different specialized algorithms, due to this self-applicability and mediated by it. In this mode, the model goes together like two interrelated processes: the process of the self-applicability and the process of information transfer, with the first process can not take place without the second, and the second - called first. Recall that the co-flow of two information processes, we briefly mentioned in the section "The long road to consciousness".
So, we met with two models of the Turing machine - a specialized and universal - and made sure that the detail of the review, which we are confined, all there for the attentive reader is simple, everything in sight. Now is the time to ask the troubling question. Where is the consciousness, where is I ? That they are not in the model, it is clear: the fact it is the model, but nevertheless, if we choose a model adequately describes the essence of information processing the brain, it must at least contain the elements that determine the flow of real brain processes, which could be attributed the emergence of consciousness. If we translate described earlier breakdown zones tape universal model with language specific terms in common language, then to those listed previously to six zones can be related to the following:
- Visual, auditory, tactile, and other information to the brain through the senses from the outside world (including own body);
- Data to ensure that the flow in the brain processes that we associate concepts such as thinking, thinking over;
- Information about what people currently know about the outside world, and his scientific knowledge, philosophy, culture, social mores, etc. and so on, ie all data about the external world is stored in memory;
- Similar information, but are not about the external world and of themselves, also stored in the memory;
- Data on current reactions in the model, which can be associated with permanently present in the human brain, the manifestation of his life (meaning no activity or a physiological level, but hidden from the observer brain "commands" that are the source of the activity)
The reader will notice that lists the five items and the lack of zone "of its own description." This is not forgetful of the author and a tribute to a difficult moment. The difficulty lies in the fact that, firstly, the own description - it is not something that the model knows about himself, because knowledge about yourself can be fickle, and own description - it is a constant. In the language model, we now know, it fits the description of the table (algorithm) the operation control device. Perhaps, in the brain corresponds to the structure of an unknown to us or functional entity. Secondly, the presence in the model, on the tape's own description in itself does not mean anything. It does, shall we say, advantage over the other zones do not possess, except for one distinguishing feature: it is written in the internal language, nowhere, nothing matches the language of the other areas of the tape. We do not know yet of any "inner language" of the brain, which we might associate with the internal language model.
A careful reader will notice also that, among the above-mentioned characteristics and properties of human functioning brain is not such a thing as consciousness. One might argue that was specified area information containing data about himself and presumably capable of forming a qualitatively new category, which can be compared with the concept of consciousness. However, this objection is countered as follows. Information is collected only through a comprehension of the outside world, through communication with others. Knowledge of our merits or demerits, abilities, propensities, in short, the knowledge of "what am I", is formed on a basis equal to the formation of knowledge "that he is" because we are all in the same environment, in a society. Another thing is that the knowledge of their own, are sometimes characterized more fully than knowledge about others, but this issue from another plane of consideration. Thus, nature appears to models' aggregate data about the model "is the same as the" set of data about the environment. Hence the conclusion is that, since there is no qualitative distinction between information processing in these areas, it is more likely, one should not expect to see a new quality of reading information from a "set of data models.
Perhaps it is time to return a small debt: in the second chapter, we promised to further consider the "syndrome of multiple personality." We certainly are not going to explain it in the language of psychology or physiology. However, the explanation in terms of a universal Turing model looks simple enough. The above-mentioned zone "set of data models" in the case under review, the syndrome actually be composed of several sub-zones, exchange of information between them impossible. Each sub-zone corresponds to a certain "personality".
Now back to consciousness - this is not some mediocre property in a very unique, special quality, which has no analogues, and therefore naturally expected in models of the presence of some special properties fundamentally different from all others, who could try to associated with the mechanism of the emergence of consciousness. However, what we see in the model, particularly in its universal form? The tape can be recorded or create any number of various algorithms: they can differ from one another on memory, on-time implementation, between them, eventually, be some qualitative differences. But the standard device manager they are all in the same regard - it handles them all on the same algorithm.
From universal Turing model, we can expect not only "outstanding" student's abilities and special evolutionary properties, but also the elements of which consciousness is built. In fact, in today's knowledge of universal Turing model - a threshold, where it is to honestly ask and honestly answer them.
Perhaps the brain has a natural and "algorithmic" in nature and should Turing model search for items that simulate consciousness?
Perhaps the brain has a natural, but not an algorithmic nature, and nothing of Turing models require that what is not there?
Perhaps the brain has a natural and algorithmic nature, but a Turing machine - is not something for which we accept it?
Maybe we do too narrowed the field studies, focusing only on information processing? At this point you can lead and cautionary statements, such as: "... now everything is becoming clearer understanding that attempts to simulate the work of" naked "the brain does not lead to success, you can not pull a" soul "of" the body "[50, s.140] .
Perhaps the brain has a supernatural nature and we can say - "Amen"?
And here on this stage, when you need to choose an honest (and actually need to choose between first, third, fourth and fifth questions, for Turing, like Julius Caesar's wife above suspicion), we can, defusing the dramatic situation, to say that we pick until the first alternative. Why is it uncertain "until", it will be clear from what follows.
The reader acquainted with the property of the self-applicability specialized models and analyzing the comparison zones tape in a universal model, perhaps, realized that a decisive contribution to the mechanism of consciousness must make a vague yet for us, which takes place in the real brain of the process model that can be the self-applicability universal Turing model.
We believe that the implementation of the self-applicability, whose main objective - control over the stability of the structure of the control device, there is "collateral" effect. When the model reads the signals outside world, it "learns" the outside world. When the model reads the information about itself, it perceives itself to that part which is also due to the external environment. Finally, when the model reads its own description, it "perceives" itself in the part which is connected with the description of the control device. There are like two feedback loop, two loops, in which information is transmitted by various codes: the first cycle - it is to work with all areas tapes, except for zone "own description" in the second cycle of treatment is "self-description"; as shown above ; this cycle, in turn, may consist of two cycles. That in model refers to as self-applicability (and in universal model in that part which is connected with the mechanism of interpretation, this process that is very important, goes in internal language), in an actual brain at availability of appropriating receptors creates a phenomenon which we name capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning. The by-effect becomes the dominating factor. Truly, the nature is blind and does not see, that creates. Again the word-combination « the subjective beginning » (first time it has been used in the second chapter) has sounded. Basically, we are ready to pay to it greater attention, but if necessary, because of composite features of a stated material, it will be made in the following chapter.
Finishing the given section, we shall note, that we have following sequence of algorithmic models, since more simple:
- rigid special-purpose model without self-applicability;
- rigid universal model without self-applicability;
- plastic special-purpose self-applicability model;
- rigid universal self-applicability model.
If in the given hierarchy to be guided only by a combination of various properties of models it would be necessary to enter still not specified here - plastic special-purpose model without self-applicability and rigid universal model without self-applicability. However from the information point of view it is necessary to consider such models unstable, but vigorously to approve, that similar models cannot really exist, probably, it is impossible. Last in the list « rigid universal model with self-applicability » will be considered of the most perfect.
But at once one more arises - «plastic universal self-applicability model», as though, most the maximum and not specified in the given hierarchy. What is it? The question very much and very uneasy, is here again given only preliminary opinion on its possible decision. Plasticity and versatility (in that understanding in what these terms were used with reference to the Turing model) exclude each other as versatility of structure assumes its stability within the limits of conservation of a principle of interpretation, that is on idea should not suppose its plasticity. If we argue formally, that the slightest change in the structure of control device generates a new specialized model. However, when the specialized model is compared with the brain of any animal, a small change is more convenient to refer to the zone of plasticity, in announcing the very model of a model type, class, unit, etc.
If we ask about the possible number of specialized models, the power of their set can be roughly defined as infinite, but countable. The set of universal models as infinite and countable. Obviously, while maintaining the principle of interpretation, one model will be different from the other only by their internal language.
It should be noted that the set of specialized and universal models are not the same cardinality. If we use the metaphor, the universal model - the islands in the ocean of specialization. Structural plasticity contraindicated universal model: it blurs it into a specialized vast. Therefore, if guided by the thesis that universalism is based on the principle of interpretation (another principle we do not know), the human brain should be associated with the fourth - the universal self-applicability rigid model. With regard to the fifth, then few words about it will be discussed in the section "niche for God."
Earlier in one of the sections we argued that the self-applicability - a way of self-monitoring of the living organism. In fact, not made the allegation, but an assumption, so to speak - a working hypothesis. Hypotheses can be checked, proved. All well if in our disposal was available a lot of varied self-applicability structures. But at us they are not present, except for self-applicability the Turing machine. Stop! According to the several quite substantial works published in a network the Internet (, ), self-applicability surrounds us if it is possible so to be expressed, continually. According to works to which we have just referred, self-applicability is a basis of existence, a basis of life of all existing. Thus, proceeding from a principle of self-applicability, communication of existence, consciousness and life, on the basis of perusal of these works, is represented doubtless.
Unfortunately, we have no possibility to state here very 'thin', using mathematical symbolics, reasonings of the author of these articles concerning a principle of self-applicability. However, we understand the underlying its role in the emergence of consciousness, going "own way", relying on the concept of self-applicability taken, so to speak, in the narrow sense, that is - on the self-applicability Turing machine. When the processing of information by the brain, in its interpretation of the Turing model has been expanded in all details, does not remain anything where you could see the model origins of consciousness, except for self-applicability Turing machine, that is - read its own description.
It now it is possible to tell, that « does not remain anything». In fact, this conclusion led to a chain of reasoning, whose links are scattered throughout the previous text. Let's collect these links and we shall repeat. Idle time, even a naive question has been put. Whether «can know a stone about the existence»? Thus, certainly, it supposed, that any specific stone really exists. Having refused a principle of spirituality of all real, we on this own question have answered negatively - the stone does not know about the existence. And at once there was a concept about unimaginably long way from a dead matter to the animated nature and its maximum representative - to the person.
However in parallel with occurrence and progress of biological organisms which mineral traces we find, or we assume, that they could exist, from us something is absolutely hidden other, namely - process of increasing information interchange of organisms with the environment. Clearly, than at higher level there was this process, especially adapted for conditions of existence there was an alive specimen. In chapter 3 in which we described prospective evolution of models of alive organisms, it has been paid attention, that on internal channels of models the information, as about an environment, and inwardnesses of models circulates. In pictures it was easy to show, on one channels the external information, and on another - internal circulates. But actually, all information channels are inside of an organism. The organism should learn to distinguish itself, that conforms to a private world, and that - external. On special-purpose Turing we have shown models, that in it there are no means of distinction of external and internal symbols.
So, having separated from an external world an integument (an armor, a membrane, scales), an alive organism to not be lost in the environment, has been obliged to be separated from it is information: it is 'mine', and it is « not mine ». We wrote what carry out it 'from within' process of self-applicability can only; and full information division external and internal is available only in the self-applicability universal Turing model. Therefore, finally, on the basis of all aforesaid it is possible to try to define following as concept of consciousness, probably, for many readers - unexpected. Consciousness is an information process that occurs in the information system and consists in the ability of this system information and the complete separation of 'self' from 'not self'.
And one more thing, which in connection with the discussion of the universal Turing model deserves attention at least at the primary reference. As noted, the basis of the universal Turing machine is an algorithm interpretation. In the theory of algorithms the theorem that « there are universal Turing machines» [46, ñ.130] is proved. The plural appearing in the formulation of the theorem, not incidentally. Depending on the accepted way of coding of the information the various universal cars, differing one from another under such characteristics, as number of states of the functional table, speed of processing of the information, the used volume of a tape can be constructed.
Differences of models by the named criteria, probably, should be reflection of the fact of any differences in modeled objects. Apparently, that the number of conditions, speed of processing, a memory size are quantitative characteristics; the qualitative side of algorithm of interpretation thus does not change, and, consequently, we cannot speak about qualitative distinctions in principles of processing of the information in objects modeled by universal model.
Therefore the fundamental importance has a question: whether it is possible to construct the universal Turing machine in which basis the algorithm which is qualitatively distinct from algorithm of interpretation (say, using mentioned in section 'By-effect' the fifth model under the account) would lay? Obviously, this question goes far beyond pure mathematics: a positive response to it indicates that there may exist the mind, qualitatively different from a human, a negative response leads to the conclusion that the human mind - the only one in the universe (this does not mean that humanity - the only a thinking community, is unique in this case, the principle of human thinking).
As of today the theory of algorithms does not claim, that a universal Turing machine is unique, to the contrary, on ways of coding of the information it is plural, but it is is not offered any other algorithm yet, except for algorithm of interpretation which could provide the foundation for its work.
When we bring a attention to the question about qualitative other type of reason naturally there is an idea on the God we think as the maximum reason which is qualitatively distinct from human. It has been above noted, that on a brought attention to the question on various types of reason two answers - positive and negative are possible. However it is impossible to exclude and the third version: formally the answer is not maybe received, if the given question shows algorithmically unsoluble problem (we still shall speak about algorithmic unsolvability further). The author is inclined to consider, that at any version of the answer - positive or negative - a conclusion one: the God is not present. Even if the answer is positive, and other reason, probably, exists, it not the God, for the God basically is not used to know. And only the third hypostasis of the answer (algorithmic unsolvability) forms a niche in which the God could hide. But even this answer does not prove the God, and only does not deny It.
At whom has not had the heart, skills of work on 'dry' texts, finally, a level of preparation, can, as it was promised, to address to the given resume.
The declared objective - to understand the natural nature of occurrence of consciousness and further to grope ways to area of immortality. Consciousness the person possesses only. Therefore, to understand its nature, it is impossible to speak about it as it will seem strange, in human language. G.K.Chesterton's caution « to reason harmfully and dangerously to prepare reason » [53, ñ.315] it has appeared as never by the way: it has turned out so, that we have as though heeded advice, having placed between « object of research » and our reason model. Chesterton warns, actually, inquiring, preserving its mind. Perhaps, and for us it became useful, but the main thing that the Turing model has appeared the shrill projector which has shined depths hitherto shipped in darkness. Model - the tool which should possess accuracy of Robin Hood's arrow, a pedantry of a mirror, severity of a square of Malevich. This model also became a Turing machine. Its works which have not understood principles are not obliged to think not so, that the brain is arranged, as it.
It is not so important, that the model coincided with the prototype - important that it kept the basic attitudes which are peculiar to it. In the toy car of a wheel set in motion either a spring, or the electromotor, or an inertial flywheel. In a toy there is no petrol or diesel motor, but the main thing that is inherent in any car - capacity to movement, is realized. Our model has shown:
- The first. Distinction between the person and all fauna is entered in the concept of two types of models - special-purpose and universal.
- The second. The model supplies an explanation - why the fauna is infinitely varied, and the person - one. In the following chapter this explanation will receive even greater persuasiveness.
- The third. The universal model possesses practically unlimited possibilities for 'training', thus the structure of model does not change in any way. 'Capacities' of special-purpose model to training below, and quality of training - other.
- The fourth. In models (both special-purpose, and universal) the process having the name 'self-applicability' is maybe organized. Something is told about this mysterious process in the read through chapter, something will be opened in chapters of the subsequent. Self-applicability can be put in conformity, for example, a dog, trying to bite own tail, the snake swallowing, reflection of one mirror in other. Finally, self-applicability is a reflection by a brain of own structure and laws of its work.
It is necessary to ponder a little even upon the resulted plots to understand their all mysteriousness and unsolvability. Probably, there is nothing surprising when at reflection by a brain of the structural and functional displays there is such puzzle as consciousness. Therefore we have connected capacity to occurrence with model process of self-applicability of universal model in an actual brain of the new quality named by the term « the subjective beginning ».
- The fifth. The universal model possess property, which can be defined the term «bimodal», that conforms to capacity of model to separate itself from everything, that is « not model ». In the following chapter it will be shown, that the concept is deduced from this property (in a combination to self-applicability) 'I'.
By the way, the special-purpose model does not possess property bimodal.
- The sixth. Self-applicability of model describes, in our opinion, some actual process occuring in a brain. This process which has arisen ýâîëþöèîííî, supervises and, probably, provides stability of a brain as information system in case of adverse external variations.
In the fifth chapter in process of expansion of a composition named and other features the Turing models will be in addition analysed, that else in a greater degree will strengthen our confidence of correctness of the chosen way: the consciousness can be studied on the formalized models, consciousness not possessing.
Chapter 5. The PHENOMENON of CONSCIOUSNESS
Above a stream all the day long
Catches, the dragonfly catches
Chiyo-ni (Japanese poetry of late
So, we have intruded in area, the finding in which can testify to imprudence and, so, impudences. Whether not too ephemeral the tool is in hands to hope with its help to know for the present unknown? Is not that so, how the prevention sounds M.K.Mamardashvili's who has untimely left from us following statement? « Neither in the form of limiting philosophical concept, nor in the form of the actual phenomenon described by psychological and other means, the consciousness does not give in to theorization, objectifying... As approaching it consciousness as the shadow escapes the researcher » [34, ñ.3].
Concept human 'I' and consciousness as the fundamental property distinguishing the person as the subject from animals, are inseparable: if there is no consciousness, there is no 'I'. Concept 'I' - the complex concept including a number of elements: perception of a continuity of the existence, caused by the certain stability of memory; capacity in the certain borders to analyze a course of process of thinking of own brain, finally, sensation of own body. All these properties are so bound and interdependent, that more often 'I' of the person for it as subject act as something uniform and indivisible.
Considering the approach to a brain as to information system which model is maybe presented by universal Turing machine, we see two processes - work on a tape and self-applicability. It suggests, as in modeled object also it is possible to allocate, at least, qualitatively various two processes causing occurrence of consciousness.
The first process or as we shall name it, « the first link in a circuit of occurrence of consciousness » is formed by a reflection of the certain brain structures. As a result of a similar reflection, in our opinion, there is the certain qualitatively unique property named by us by capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning. It is the first link of consciousness. There should be a certain mechanism which creates this capacity, and in this sense the subjective beginning objectively.
With reference to universal Turing model we saw, that the named first link in a circuit of consciousness can be modeled by its self-applicability. The stated idea as it is important, it is possible to state differently: self-applicability of universal model models actual process which can be defined as reflection by a brain of its own structure, and rules of its functioning. Availability of similar process is a necessary condition for occurrence of the subject.
The second link in a circuit of consciousness is just that appears as a result of realization mentioned above capacity that if so it is possible to tell, it is felt as the first link. It, first, that mechanism which creates capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, secondly, the information on, occuring memory of the subject (that conforms to occurrence of consciousness), and, finally, the information on an external world which are integrated in traditional concept - 'consciousness'. The mechanism of occurrence of the second link in a circuit of consciousness in universal Turing model other: it can be realized as result of processing of the information in all other zones of a tape.
We are distant from the statement, that into two parts mechanical character and each part has division of consciousness of the person can exist independently. To us it is thought, that two links of consciousness are in more complex, interdependent indissoluble communication and though in the further independent model processes and metaphorical analogues will be put to each link in conformity, such comparison should be considered no more as a hypothesis.
The first link of consciousness, spoken by language of mathematics, is only necessary link in a chain, its forming. In the same way the second link is necessary also. Each of them separately does not form anything, that would be let even is distant similar on consciousness. Only in structure of a ring made of two links, there is a phenomenon of consciousness. We can tell nothing about greater hemispheres of a brain proceeding in a bark material processes if them to consider from the point of view of division into the processes appropriating the first and second model links of consciousness and their interoperability. However in model are the processes appropriating operations in different zones of a tape: in a zone « own description » (the first link of consciousness) and in all other zones (the second link of consciousness).
The specified processes, undoubtedly, should cooperate, and this interoperability of process of self-applicability and process with other zones of a tape can be presented as follows. As a result of application to own description of algorithm of interpretation a certain target word (the model is considered self-applicable) which can become an entrance word for any other algorithms recorded in the appropriating zone of a tape that makes possible a following cycle of a reflection, etc. is developed, including in each new cycle all new and new elements. It only very conditional, hypothetical diagram, however, even on it is visible, that interrelation of two processes maybe very complex.
The fundamental difference in model mechanisms of two allocated links in a circuit of formation of consciousness, probably, is comparable to the fact of their qualitative distinction and in an actual brain. The first link as it is compared by us to the quality leading to existance of subjective property, it would be possible to connect with a primary and constant intrinsic part human "I" - that is designated by concept... And here there is a ticklish situation: neither in modern domestic psychology, nor in modern domestic philosophy there is no concept and the appropriating term for a designation of the first link "I". But in so-called idealistic and religious concepts of consciousness of names for our first link it is enough: « Pure I », « integral I », « primary I », « central I », « I in itself », « mystical I », « Supreme I », « Spiritual heart », the Absolute and even the God. But it only names; the specific, objectively fixed content behind them, unfortunately, is not present. The second link - more mobile, changeable, dependent on external circumstances; it causes formation of individual features and characteristics of the person. The materialistic concept "I" in fact is settled by our second link, i.e. that in model the data set about model » reduces to every possible operations with a zone «, without taking into account process of self-applicability.
To note one remarkable circumstance, we shall result long enough citation: « The concept individual "I" is in the European psychology, perhaps, one of the most uncertain. Despite of its empirical availability, its reality in introscopy (or, most likely, by virtue of this obvious and accessible availability), the range of values of this term is extremely wide. Some psychologists include in "I" not only all person, but also its nearest material and social environment, others - only enough a small layer of mentality. The volume of the given term and its content so vague, that this concept recently all is less often used in the literature on psychology. And, nevertheless, despite of its significant different interpretations, all the European psychologists make common cause in one: individual "I" am indisputable and, undoubtedly, exists. To debate it is possible only about its empirical characteristics » [54, p.144]. If with the given statement to compare to our concept of two links there is a possibility to bring in this complicated question some, though and not final clarity.
Thus the truth, it is necessary to ask a question provoking the author on response: as self-applicability is the cleanly model process entered by us as though is artificial, maybe, in an actual brain of any analogues it is not present? It is possible to answer provocation by the same: let self-applicability is not present, however offer the mechanism which would provide stability of a brain in ontogenesis... And, most likely, it is necessary to return to self-applicability or something similar to it.
Question, however, not in it: it is possible to admit reflection by a brain itself for maintenance of the structural stability and to it to be limited. However we consider it necessary to note, that any material process proceeding in material system, is always accompanied by "collateral" effect, or as it can be named now, - « effect of assembly »: Mechanical movement is accompanied by a sound; the electric current causes heating a conductor, creates a magnetic field; the elementary particle losing energy, radiates quantum of light, etc., etc. Extremely proceeding from similar analogies, we also have assumed, that a brain, reflecting myself and carrying out this reflection in internal language, creates something such, that concerns occurrence subjective.
The division seems to be a holistic concept of "I" on two levels - a fundamental point in our hypothesis, and it must be understood. When we do not understand something, for explanation not clear we use analogies to the familiar phenomena. The consciousness represents such phenomenon which does not have even approximate analogies. The most successful comparison found by the person, - comparison of consciousness, reason to light. Not having greater, we shall take advantage of it.
Shine is a first link in a circuit of consciousness. And it is not so much a light source (it maybe a miscellaneous, for example, a powerful projector and a weak night lamp), how many the light radiated by a source. It is possible to object, that light too happens different: weak, strong, polarized, monochromatic, etc. However property of light - to shine - one. Also it is possible to compare with the first link of consciousness which is identical at all people to this property. The second link in a circuit of consciousness is that is shined with light. In each specific situation, each specific source will shine the diversified, but unique subject matters. It also conforms to individual originality of the second link of consciousness.
Using resulted 'analogy', it is possible to note, that both of a link in a circuit of consciousness are uniform and inseparable: light (not a light source!) it is invisible, if there are no subject matters shined by it as - as well as subject matters are invisible if they are not shined by light. But this unity and inseparability - higher order, than if the consciousness was uniform and inseparable in its sense unstructured. (Hardly more detailed « the analogy to light » is stated on a site in section « Reoregenation intelligibly », - B.P.).
Now it is necessary to ask an all-important question and, naturally, to answer it. Really, why in case of special-purpose model we 'have given up' to process of self-applicability in employment of seat of the applicant by it for a role of the founder of a phenomenon of consciousness and have left behind it the right only to generate its some elements? Why we unconditionally give this role to self-applicability of the universal model? The answer to these two interconnected questions is rather simple and depends from special, besides collateral, properties of self-applicability of the universal model.
Essential, distinctive feature of self-applicability of universal model in comparison with model special-purpose is shown available two factors. The factor the first. Realization of any algorithm in universal model is maybe executed through process of its self-applicability. Is available existence of two processes and their mutual conditionality is available, that, at least, on the outside well is correlated with conscious activity of a brain of the person: there is a process of cerebration and process of comprehension of this activity, that in turn influences character of this activity. The factor of the second. Self-applicability of universal model is not connected in any way with use of symbols of the external alphabet as the description of the table of the universal Turing machine is maybe executed in fact completely in the 'internal' language, not crossed anywhere with external. We spoke about it, when described work of the universal Turing machine.
Own description of the interpreting mechanism which made completely from symbols of internal language of model and has been read through on an input of model without 'impregnation' in it of symbols of the external alphabet (as it was in special-purpose Turing machine), creates qualitatively new picture, allowing unequivocally to separate 'comprehension' by model of the structural organization from 'comprehension' of other world. "Comprehension" of this structural organization goes only on internal (as it sometimes name, introspective) language, without "impregnation" of signals of an external world. This circumstance could assist not only subjectively perceived uniqueness of self-perception, but also its integrity as no unpredictable influences of an environment if process of self-applicability is not subject to the internal distortions, can destroy it. Existence of internal language on which self-applicability of the universal model is realized, i.e. its reflection, well is entered in the concept of information model on fig.6 in which channels of a feedback of a brain are strictly specified.
Teilhard in the book « the Phenomenon of the person » pays significant attention reflective to a brain (a reflection we have mentioned the term above). However, at Teilhard this term is treated more widely, than at us: we consider a reflection only in connection with self-applicability of model. «... The Reflection is the capacity got by consciousness to concentrate on itself and to seize by itself as the subject matter possessing the specific stability and the specific value, - capacity not simply to learn, and to learn itself; not simply nobility, and the nobility that you know. By this individualization itself inside of itself... The element, up to that sprayed and divided in a vague circle perceptions and actions, for the first time has turned to the dot center in which all concepts and experience communicate and fastened in a single entity realizing the organization ».
Let's quote further: «the perception mental center, once having concentrated on itself, can continue existence only by bilateral progress which consists in the further self-concentration by penetration into new space and at the same time in a concentration around of itself other world,
By an establishment in a surrounding reality more and more harmonous and it is better than the organized prospect. Not motionlessly fallen asleep center, and the whirlpool which is more and more going deep by retraction of a liquid in which it has arisen. The perception essence by virtue of the concentration on itself suddenly begins capable to develop in new area. Actually this occurrence of the new world. Abstraction, logic, deliberate choice and ingenuity, mathematics, the art, the calculated perception of space and duration, alarm and torture of love... All this activity of an internal life - not that other, as excitation of again formed center inflammable in self ». And, finally, last citation: « With the advent of reflex, properties in effect elementary (at least, in the beginning!), all changes, and we notice, that under brighter reality of collective transformations secretly there was a parallel movement to an individualization » [55, pp.136, 132].
And now we shall state important, in our opinion, the statement: though the reflection on the external display looks as functional property (I know - I know, that I know - I know, that I know, that I know, etc.), in its basis structural formation lays. That it is better to understand, the role of the special structural organization in reflective information system is however important, we shall take advantage of evident analogy following enough.
Whether can reflect a flat mirror itself? No, it can reflect only surrounding it halfspace. But if to take mirror area it is capable to reflect full space, but itself reflect still cannot. And if the area will be hollow and is executed from a transparent material, such, what external and internal its surfaces will possess rather high factor of reflection? (An evident illustration of a possibility of construction of such area is familiar since the childhood to everyone the soap bubble). As a result we have very interesting object. The outer surface of transparent area reflects external space. The image of this reflection is completely similar to a reflected reality and at the same time specific by virtue of reflection of light from a surface with negative curvature. The inner surface again reflects space surrounding area, but it occurs already by reflection itself and already in other, 'language' caused by reflection of light from a surface with positive curvature. So, a flat mirror not reflect, and inner surface of the mentioned area, i.e. a soap bubble, yes. Display of structural properties also consists in it. However, considered the reflective area unlike a reflective brain is passive, but on its example, nevertheless, it is possible to show one enough important point. Though the hollow transparent area reflects, i.e. reflects itself, it in reflection is invisible if, certainly, to assume, that on its surface there are no defects and pollution. But, being invisible, it brings in the reflected image of the characteristic of the structure.
Whether there is something similar and with a reflective brain? Inside of a skull we do not find anything, what would not be reflection of an external world (more precise citation in this regard will be resulted later), whether and at the same time at this reflection there is something such, what is reflection of especially internal, unique and at the same time standard properties? Somehow by itself the another question arises: « the reflective mental center », mentioned Teilhard, or its element which lives inside of itself, whether is it is that internal reflecting surface of area, whether is it is the invariant system of coordinates mentioned in the first chapter, whether is it is that first level of a reflection, modeled by self-applicability of the universal Turing model?
How here to not recollect one more statement of the author quoted by us: « materialists persistently continue to speak about subject matters how if they were reduced only to external conditions... Spiritualists persistently do not wish to fall outside the limits... single introscopy where essences are considered only closed in themselves... On my belief, these two points of view it is required to unite, and they will be soon incorporated within the limits of some kind of phenomenology, or the expanded physics (we shall add from themselves - computer science. - B.P.) in which the internal side of things will be taken into consideration, as well as an external side of the world » [55, p.53].
By us it is mastered, perhaps, a arduous part of a way. Therefore it is is useful to look back and to comprehend passed. The objective faced us, - to understand essence of consciousness. However instead of, apparently, expected research of behavior of the organisms possessing a brain, we send other by way. Two models of the organization of processes of processing of the information in a brain - special-purpose and universal have been offered. We have seen, that first of them basically can reach a rather high level of plasticity in the certain borders of variation of the entrance information and a range of alterability, that is its evolutionary possibilities and adaptability to changing conditions of environment basically are great enough. It possesses capacity to accumulate the information during "life", otherwise, to be trained. However, the limit of educability is maybe reached fairly promptly, that limits possibilities of each specific "population" of this model. The model can possess initial elements of consciousness which, however, do not allow to allocate itself from the environment of 'dwelling'. Therefore the model is introspectively integrated with the environment.
The second, universal model, similarly to the first too has fixed (anyway, at 'birth' of model) structure, but this fixity is based on other principles. It also can evolve, the truth, its evolution goes differently, than at the first model. Plasticity of the second model is very high, and capacity to training at it practically is boundless. The model contains the mechanism of self-applicability assisting occurrence in modeled object of stable and integral quality therefore the object becomes the subject.
By result of comparison of two considered models we in fact have stated the following. The first model in its maximum special-purpose forms is a model of a brain of mammals, down to most close to the person as it is considered to be, - primates. The second model - model of a brain of the person. A choice of a way - « to the right you will go... », « on the left you will go... » has occured for a long time, likely, much earlier and not how now it is accepted to think.
In this seat the channel of our reasonings has offshoot. It is very seductive to look, that is behind a bend designated by words: « a choice of a way... has occured... much earlier and not so... ». Without availability sailing directions, it is not recommended to send to travel on unfamiliar waterways. But we shall not go deep far, only slightly we shall look, that there ahead: powerful current or cosy swamp with all its integral attributes. However turn aside is not only curiosity. Now in all indispensability the new objective 'has loomed': to find it is as much as possible confirmings (and, maybe, refutations?) validity of the offered models. Therefore we are again ready to make travel to an evolutionary jungle. We only have a compass - Turing model. Let's choose by means of this compass a number of navigating principles, or postulates which will be useful in the further. Some of them are known or obvious, others will have hypothetical character.
Postulate the first. Any arbitrarily drawn up a table if it is viewed as a table of the Turing machine, sets a process of information processing.
Postulate of the second. Not everyone, arbitrarily made table specifies algorithm, i.e. the certain purposeful action. Thus, apparently, that capacity of set of 'purposeful' tables (we shall name so) less capacities of the set noted in the first postulate. For not mathematicians we shall explain, that capacity of set means quantity of elements, in it occuring; it is fair for sets with final number of elements. If the infinite set capacity characterizes the order of growth of this infinity is considered.
Postulate the third. Not any Turing machine formed of "purposeful" tables, is self-applicable. Differently, capacity of set self-applicable machines is less than capacity of set of the machines allocated by the second postulate.
It, so to say, obvious positions which besides are confirmed experimentally. So M.Minsky in one of the works  describes experiment with several by the thousands Turing machines which has allowed to allocate four basic types. First, machines, computing process in which stopped, not resulting in. Secondly, the machines erasing on a tape the information and anything any more not doing. Thirdly, going in cycles, i.e. infinitely repeating the same sequence of actions of the machines. And, finally, fourthly, very small quantity of mschines which led to any interesting results. Certainly, the number of types maybe is more; resulted four - are received among several thousand the most simple machines.
Postulate the fourth. The easier model, the limited a zone of its self-applicability. At the certain complication of model the zone of its self-applicability can extend. Apparently, that the zone of self-applicability is understood as a certain range of variations of the table, in which modification of algorithm of functioning of model (besides in the certain limits) does not deprive model of property of self-applicability.
Postulate the fifth. Universal model, as well as special-purpose, maybe self-applicable and not self-applicable. Universal the self-applicable model working on a principle of interpretation in certain fixed system of coding of the information, is unique. It is possible to weaken this assumption and to consider, that number of such machines certainly.
Postulate of the sixth. Capacity of set self-applicable universal models of essentially less capacity of set special-purpose self-applicable models.
Postulate of the seventh. If to consider action of driving factors of evolution by an accidental stream it is possible to connect concept of probability of occurrence of this or that model with concept of capacity of set.
It is necessary to stipulate especially controllability principles models for any complex system cannot do without the control of the working capacity. It is necessary to mean, that our model as it is analogue of « natural structure », methods of the internal control (self-checking) are essentially possible only. In this case it is possible to specify its two forms - passive and active. The passive form in fact conforms to creation of such conditions at which the indispensability of the control in general disappears, - conditions at which the system rigidly preserves itself (rigidity). One more form of passive (almost passive) control - reservation of the failed elements. However as reserving elements too should be rigid such control does not bring in our reasonings anything essentially new. The active control is a self-applicability at which or the certain plasticity of model (self-applicable special-purpose models is supposed) or is established «over rigidity» models (self-applicable universal models).
Summarizing told, we shall state our eighth postulate. Rigidity and self-applicability - two forms of the control of model. Each of them, providing greater stability of model, at the same time preserves it.
Let's analyse beheviour of various types of models at variation of an environment of their dwelling. Thus it is necessary to take into consideration, that external variations can prove, at least, two ways. First, it can be small variations of entrance influences to which the model adapts, and, secondly, greater influences to which the model responds irreversible variations of the structure.
Not self-applicable (rigid) special-purpose model. Variations of the entrance alphabet or occurrence of non-standard combinations of entrance symbols by such model do not detect, however its behaviour becomes to the inadequate changed conditions of an environment. The model gets in a zone of risk where factors of natural selection more clearly prove. It is necessary to mean, that variations of conditions of dwelling operate not on models separate to 'individual', and on all 'population'. Therefore as a result of mutagenesis the certain number of 'populations' occurs either adaptation, or disappearance. If adaptation was carried out, we have in fact new special-purpose model. If external influences bring in model any structural variations they concern not to all "population", and separate "individuals", however an adjusted total, apparently, the same, as in the previous case.
Self-applicable (plastic) special-purpose model. Such model detects variation of external influences and consequently its further "destiny" will define not only factors of natural selection, but also its own activity. Joint action of the specified factors or at all does not change model, or leads to its insignificant transformation. Intensive external influences, changing structure of model (again - not at all 'population' but only at its separate 'individuals'), can lead to two situations: or the changed model remains self-applicable (that less possibly), and we come to an initial situation, or the model loses property of self-applicability (more probable case) that brings to existence of unstable type. It is necessary to mean, that in well designed system if it can" fail at influence of any unforeseen situations, control services all over again refuse. The given statement can be carried and to self-applicable Turing model: as soon as external influences leave for some, admissible for the given model, a range, it, changing itself, ceases to be self-applicable. Further, plasticity becomes a source of occurrence of new specializations.
Summarizing, it is possible to assume, that serious variations of an environment (nevertheless, we we shall name it « micro-explosion ») 'blow up' self-applicable plastic special-purpose model, generating the certain set of special-purpose 'splinters' (branches). As a result of it there are close 'populations', the majority from which perishes; had time to get self-applicability, populations are kept as updated special-purpose.
Let's estimate now a situation with universal models which by definition are rigid, having begun the analysis with universal not self-applicable. Such model is tolerant to variation of external influences as it can develop fairly promptly new algorithm of processing of these variations from "population" appropriating conservation by reaction. Variations of model (on its tape), occur, but do not mention its basic property - versatility. Now we shall stop on "serious" variations in model, and it is necessary to stipulate separately those both on a tape, and in structure of the table. The information recorded on a tape of universal model, in general is characterized by mobility, therefore its distortions are a subject to fast enough restoration or variation in the necessary direction. Variations of structure of the table are more dangerous: if they do not lead to loss of versatility the not self-applicable model does not detect them, but a stock of its stability, naturally, decreases.
The most interesting is the case when the universal model loses the main property, i.e. versatility, and if necessary becomes special-purpose (it is hard to tell - what, self-applicable or not). It as it seems to us, not slow transition from one specialization to another, is jump. Again there is a set of special-purpose models. Let's name it «greater explosion». Among 'splinters' (branches) of former universal model can be kept and not self-applicable universal models. For the detailed description of this jump the knowledge of structure of specific universal model is necessary, that to us is not available yet. Therefore it is necessary to be limited only to ascertaining of availability of jump at transition from versatility to specialization, that, undoubtedly, important.
And, finally, the universal self-applicable model. As it is paradoxical (in a view of our assumptions), but such model in relation to evolutionary factors operates similar not self-applicable model. Its structural properties (it is reminded - structural properties of model, instead of modeled object) practically are not correlated with external influences: if only they did not break these properties. All compensatory reactions if they are necessary, are realized on a tape. Certainly, availability of self-applicability should bring and for certain makes qualitative variations to the described phenomena but as process of self-applicability is not formalizable, we cannot consider it by means of our model. Here other approaches are necessary, but to us for the further quite enough the received conclusions.
Now it is necessary to stop on very important and even more a challenging question: how there was a universal model? It is possible to assume simply, that after standard rigid model (a brain of the first type) to which specializations without numbers, has appeared too rigid on structure, but very plastic on operations on a tape, and so, universal model. Differently, the continuity of transition is as though provided with conservation of properties rigidity. Why it has occured? Really, specialization is one of principles of evolution. A.Huxley wrote: «Specialization... This increase of efficiency of the adaptation to the certain way of life... Organic evolution is reduced mainly to progress of specialization» (it is quoted on [57, ñ.331]). If the principle of specialization is universal, the universal model whence has undertaken? It is possible to laugh the matter off, certainly, having declared, that the universal model is a model, special-purpose on versatility. If to consider occurrence of versatility by a random factor, it is necessary to recognize probability of such occurrence it is insignificant small.
Construction of universal model on ways of its conscious design - the fact very widespread. The person can model and build universal: the universal computer, universal Turing machine, a universal kitchen combine, university formation, a department store - the list can be continued long. But how there could be a universal model on ways of action of blind forces? Exists, the truth, opinion, that movement to consciousness is too action of one of principles of evolution. So, for example, Teilhard writes: «... In a core of a life, as an explanation of its progress (is. - B.P.) a spring of rise of consciousness » [55, p.124]. However, in several lines below other turn follows think: «The impulse of the world expressed in growth of consciousness, can have last source only any internal principle of movement, only it finds an explanation of the irreversible aspiration in it to more and more high forms mental... Perhaps, sometime we shall understand it is better» [55, pp.124,125]. Really, to us any latent principles of evolution while are unknown.
What can serve the transitive bridge between special-purpose and universal models? Certainly, any principles existing in the nature or, maybe, in model. Concerning external natural principles we cannot judge any definitely, therefore we shall try to address to principles which can exist in model.
To us it is thought, that in a conclusive way the assumption of transition to universal model from special-purpose through plasticity of last. The plastic model is more flexible means and, consequently, model more adapted for an environment. It is possible to assume, that plasticity is provided with functional and structural redundancy of model. Thus, special-purpose the Turing plastic model can be presented or as the table having superfluous number of cells, or as some set of the constant tables working with one tape: depending on values of entrance influences work joins this or that table. The requirement of the control of this variability which is maybe satisfied by means of process of self-applicability unequivocally follows from plasticity (variability) of structure of an operating arrangement. Self-applicability as we saw, is information transfer from an arrangement of management on a tape for what the special arrangement of code conversion is necessary.
What transfers a recoder from an arrangement of management on a tape? That's it - algorithm of functioning of a special-purpose operating arrangement. But on a tape of the universal Turing machine which to us needs to be created, just and algorithms of work of interpreted special-purpose models are recorded. Differently, the tape of self-applicable plastic special-purpose model on the breakdowns on zones has features of similarity to a tape universal (the truth, not self-applicable) model. That the model 'has turned' in universal, business for small: the mechanism of interpretation given as algorithms is necessary.
Interpretation of commands as the numbers (words) which are a subject processing, and, to the contrary, numbers (words) as commands - reception, well-known in the theory and practice of programming (we mentioned it earlier). At the beginning of occurrence of computer facilities, for the lack of programming languages of a high level, professional programmers quite often used these reception. The programs left from under their feather, were compact and... Are not clear. They gave out proper result, but as they did it, the majority did not understand. It was necessary to come close to a level and style of work of such programmers to understand subtleties and cunnings of the similar approach. Now such style of programming is considered a sign of "bad form".
However that is rejected in the environment of experts, quite could become indispensable attribute of alive information systems. Let's assume, that the model "loses" for any situation which is taken place earlier to give out the forecast of behavior for the future. It is a typical case of interpretation fixed before data, as sequences of commands that conforms to creation « algorithm of behavior ». Or, in case of self-applicability models (reflection) when « the algorithm of work » arrives at an input as the data, that are a subject processing. Thus, the self-applicable plastic models can have the mechanism of similar double interpretation of the data recorded on a tape; thus it is necessary to remember, that capacity to interpret given as commands is a sign of the mechanism of versatility, but as it arises while it is is unclear. Small remains while an insuperable precipice. In model there is a mechanism of restructuring from specialization to versatility, but is not present while the program of its work. Rejecting idea of the jump directed by someone, we suggest to pay attention to following circumstance. Required the universal structure works as us on a principle of interpretation, i.e. imitation. But this principle is laid in the mechanism of reproduction. Here again pertinently to address to the automatic device Neumann's background.
In a basis of model of duplication on Neumann the certain automatic device lays, capable 'to design' other automatic device under its description. . It is important to emphasize, that the automatic device-designer has the fixed structure, and its work is based on the same principle, as work of universal Turing machine, i.e. on a principle of interpretation. Only it "works" not with the information, and with material elements of which it builds the new automatic device. Thus, we see, that the answer to a brought attention to the question above - the program of restructuring special-purpose Turing model of a brain in universal - probably whence has undertaken, it is necessary to look for in model of the mechanism of reproduction of an alive matter. How the principles which are providing the foundation for work of this mechanism, have been transferred from area of reproduction to area of the organization of processing of the information by a brain, we, naturally, do not know. Clearly one: the principle of interpretation as a basis of work of the mechanism of reproduction has arisen much earlier, than there was the most primitive rigid a brain and consequently the fact of carry of this principle on work of one on types of a brain should not seem unnatural. Other question how there could be an interpreting mechanism?
It is known, that genes - the formations consisting of several millions of atoms, - are capable to reproduce itself and to pass the properties by right of succession, i.e. even they possess the interpreting mechanism. There is only a general concept, according to which in a basis of its occurrence can lay the abiogenic synthesis - a chain of selective chemical reactions which in the certain conditions could lead to occurrence of the mechanism of interpretation. Academician R.Z.Sagdeev in this regard has somehow told, half seriously, half, probably, for fun: «... Sooner or later it is necessary to look for the mechanism abiogenic synthesis or to address, as the religion, behind a supernatural explanation offers »[58, p.3].
As it has noted been earlier (ch.4), with reference to our context interpretation means imitation. An idea interesting, in our opinion, in occasion of imitation S.Gurevich has stated Item: «... It is possible, I think, to name primary property of the person from which the others have grown all... This property... capacity of the person to imitation » [59, p.203]. Thus, we once again make sure, that use of concept of interpretation for an explanation of many sides of display of human essence is not deprived the basis.
Whether the principle of interpretation is immanent to wildlife property or it is secondary? The question is too combined to give on it the unequivocal answer. The author, in general, has noticed, that many discussed on pages of this book of subject matter are a plentiful source all of new and new problems and questions. On the one hand, discussed subject matters are so deep, that there is nothing strange in occurrence from these depths new and unexpected. On the other hand, arising questions lay, besides, unexpectedly, on such significant removal from each other what to capture their one sight it is simply impossible. This circumstance has not allowed the author to consider all aspects of a problem at one level of professionalism; we ask critically adjusted reader to consider the given remark.
And so, about a principle of interpretation. As it has been told, we are assured, that it - a basis, both process of reproduction, and process of "construction" of human consciousness. It is known, that in a basis of process of duplication (reproduction) division of a cell lays. What for the cell shares? Many books are in this regard written, and one will be written yet. Let's result the interesting idea belonging Teilhard: « In itself division of a cell, probably, is caused simply by an indispensability for an alive particle to get rid of the molecular instability and from the structural difficulties connected with extension of the increase. Therefore self-reconstruction in the beginning appears in the simple way invented by the nature for maintenance of a constancy, unstable in case of large molecular connections » [55, p.91].
If to recognize the validity of this idea, division (so, and duplication) is not primary property of an alive matter, and once again (?!) only collateral phenomenon, as well as consciousness. So, interpretation - a by-product. And what primarily? Primarily in this sense, to us it is thought, reflection - really immanent property of a matter. What should the cell "make" to be divided? (We bring this attention to the question not in biological or physical, and in philosophical sense). It, first, should execute a reflection, i.e. reflect itself in itself, 'learn' itself, create the image and, secondly, reflect this image as a new alive substance.
Till now, speaking about Turing universal model, all of us time compared with it to a brain of the person. Now we shall try to ask a question: whether it is possible to observe in the nature still any organism to which on its structurally functional properties also could be put universal model in conformity? We think, that such organism is an alive cell. The proof of versatility of its model almost apparently. Really, process of duplication in which basis cell fission lays, is modeled by the interpreting automatic device Neumann's background, last, in turn, is analogue of universal Turing machine. Thus, the statement is fair: availability of a principle of interpretation is a sufficient condition for occurrence of property of versatility.
Feature of a cell not as models and as an alive organism consists that it processes not the information, and substance, carrying out synthesis alive from lifeless molecules. To pass a way from nuclear and molecular «bricks» to «bricks» cellular, the nature needed to pass from the sizes of building elements of the order of 10-8 cm to the sizes of the order of 10-2 cm (on the average), i.e. the linear sizes of building blocks have increased for six orders. Approximately in the same attitude there are linear sizes of bodies of mammals and cells of which they consist. The evolutionary way from the elementary cell up to the person last nearby 1 billion years. The way from a dead matter to an alive cell last at all less (if no more). About it it is not enough, that is known because of absence of traces, is more precise - because of their small number. The nature, creating existing forms alive, has passed two these the ways more likely similar to two coils of the untwisted spiral: a different building material, different architecture, but... Identical model.
If to compare with a way from a molecule to a cell to the evolutionary stairs leading from a cell to the person prospective jump from a dead matter to alive too reminds a stairs going upwards on which adjacent a step are divided not felt by a sole small ledge more likely. The mineral history of the Earth has not left and could not leave any traces of existence of the first march of a stairs. But we have traces and the rests of the following, the second march, as well as its 'drawings': from the elementary special-purpose Turing machine formed by the monocelled table (let us recall 'quantum' of processing of the information), up to the universal self-applicable model comparable to functions of a brain of the person. At similar focusing a retrospective sight in depths of time occurrence of the first life it not single jump from a dead empire is a slow, difficult and undistinguished step rise from a prelife by a life - the rise which is not rejected by the modern evolutionary theory.
Let's return, however, to a cell. If we compare with it universal Turing model (more precisely, the automatic device Neumann's working not with the information background, and with substance), that, naturally, arises a question on self-applicability of similar model. Internal completeness of structure of a cell, its specific 'individuality', finally, its capacity in the certain conditions to share - to all this leads to an idea, that such model should be self-applicable. Consequently, the cell from within can have... the subjective beginning. Such conclusion should not discourage, it is capable to puzzle only at the worst instance.
It is subjectivity, so to say, not ideal, but material sense for the cell processes not the information, and a matter. What sort 'consciousness' the cell what its 'will' - to present difficultly possesses. To us it is thought, that reflexivity of cells (self-applicability of its model), it « the subjective beginning » just and is shown in internal capacity of a cell to division. This capacity depending on external in relation to a cell of conditions can be shown (a cell shares) or to not be shown (divisions is not present). The given assumption (are possible, certainly, differing it) shows, that 'mentality' of a cell not is elementary brick of mentalities of the person. Therefore, as though agreeing with assumption Teilhard, that 'mental' is initially inherent in a matter - « an internal side of a matter » [55, p.53], we are inclined to consider this 'mental' as attribute not matters, and the system organization, i.e. the special organization inherent not only the person. And from here higher level of consciousness which are peculiar to the person follows, that, there is no sum (or any more complex function) the elementary quantums of 'consciousness' inherent in a cell.
Now we, perhaps, are ready to represent all the basic stages of evolution of Turing model, beginning from the elementary « the monocelled table », up to universal self-applicable. Naturally, depending on an initial building material various architectural ensembles should turn out, but we shall be limited to consideration only their models.
The first elementary models were, naturally, special-purpose. The vast majority from them safely maybe is carried to type « by nothing doing », « all erasing », «located in a loop» (the postulates see stated earlier). At all a small number from them realized any algorithm, but also that could be to inadequate external conditions. And only individual copies got, as they say, « in ten », they resisted to environment; all rest perished and broke up to make new attempt.
Through some, long-term enough, time was formed any final of 'populations' still more enough simple special-purpose models and conditions of spontaneous generation of primary models while operated, this number increased. After variation of these conditions (and it is conditions of an environment) the following stage of evolution begins. It is characterized by that models cease to arise from 'anything': everyone new - result of transformation of a part of 'population' old. If external conditions are quiet, process of transformation goes slowly, branches of an evolutionary tree are rare. At this quiet stage process of occurrence of property of plasticity, and after it - self-applicability in special-purpose models proceeds languidly.
At activization of environment or at occurrence of any other stimulating factors (for example when the target information of one models becomes entrance for others) process of increase of quantity self-applicable models can be accelerated. Clearly one: at early stages this quantity is still insignificant. Other models or rigid, or, being plastic, but not self-applicable, are unstable. Accumulation of signs of versatility is most weak point of our constructions, but the thesis that this accumulation should occur at plastic self-applicable, is less controversial, than other possible assumptions. Consequently, we shall consider, that plastic the self-applicable model is potentially universal not self-applicable model.
How many in general maybe potentially universal models? According to one of put forward before postulates it should not be greater. Probably, in its future it will be possible to calculate if to define a number of quantitative factors: frequency and intensity of external influences, a threshold of sensitivity of model, some likelihood characteristics, etc. Differently, using earlier the put forward postulates, as well as in parameters of interoperability of model and environment, it is possible to transform a qualitative picture in quantitative.
All goes slowly and easy until there is a sharp jump of external conditions. The rigid models in set perish or, being transformed, sharply narrow zones of the dwelling. The self-applicable models too partially perish, are partially transformed: anyway, the number rigid and self-applicable models is a little leveled, potentially universal which 'supplier' are self-applicable plastic, becomes even less, and advancement to universality - it is more than them. Process goes evolutionarily, i.e. without jumps (what nevertheless happen, we earlier have named « mikro-explosions »). Thus, during an epoch of existence of special-purpose models sharp external variations, dooming to death many 'populations', do not cause branching of a tree of evolution adequate on force.
Much changes after occurrence of the first universal model (at the same time there could be some such models). Actually, occurrence of universal model (still not self-applicable ) remains imperceptible, and events get revolutionary character only when two factors at the same time take place: availability universal not self-applicable model and drastic change of external conditions. Any "populations" of universal model, losing the versatility, "blow up", throwing out set of new special-purpose "splinters" (branches), thus the quantity of the "not blown up" universal models or universal "splinters" (branches) which have kept after explosion becomes even less. There will be nothing strange if after several such accidents there will be only one universal model, and that should be put the fact of its further survival in direct dependence on occurrence in it to self-applicability. And what 'splinters'? The majority of them perishes, remained form new special-purpose, inhibited by self-applicability, branches.
Let's state one more, the ninth under the account, a hypothetical postulate. The not self-applicable models constantly are a source of occurrence of new specializations: the not self-applicable plastic special-purpose model gives branching small, and universal - to the big intensity. And further, in the same postulate: the accumulator of accumulation of signs and mechanisms of versatility are self-applicable plastic special-purpose models.
Let's ask a provocative question: how to be with the rigid self-applicable special-purpose models? On the one hand, such model if it really exists, is as though protected by the double control and, consequently, is especially stable, and with another - because of availability of self-applicability should possess elements of consciousness as it is certain earlier. The reader has guessed, certainly, that the author has brought it to an idea on availability of such model, at least, at some modern insects. However to develop this idea further we have no possibility.
And last brief episode. After the kept universal branch will get self-applicability, the universal model also preserves itself: the tree of evolution of the model, grown because of elements forming it, stops the growth. New can grow, but on other ground, in different conditions.
So there could be a hypothetical evolution of the Turing models. And how was actually? The author has played a cunning trick, having declared, that at it is not present any sailing direction. There is such term 'reconciliation' meaning recurrence in progress of an embryo of stages of evolution. Even from a school rate of biology it is possible to learn, that at early stages of the progress the human embryo has underdeveloped branchiate cracks and even on the outside reminds a fish. Something similar is observed and at germs of mammals. It would seem, investigate in detail stages of reconciliation embryonic forms of animals and the person and build all on a formation - who from whom has occured.
At A.Barnett it is readable: « Embryonic progress really reflects evolutionary history of the person, but this process is immeasurably more complex, than seems at first sight... On progress of an embryo of the person it is possible to track our evolutionary history, but it at all does not mean, that we should be limited to one embryology. In fact there are such developments which do not reflect evolution of a type. By way of illustration we shall take the form of the person. The muzzle of the majority of mammals is extended forward, while the person of the person flat. At availability of direct reconciliation ancestral forms could be expected, that at an embryo of the person the muzzle which in the further it will lose will develop. Actually at a human embryo at any stage the muzzle does not appear. Mammals stretch a forward part of a head have enough late, at all early stages an embryo of animals «a flat face» [60, pp.60,61,62] ».
Let the reader for the extended citation will forgive us, but the author earlier by naivety, certainly, assumed, that embryos of mammals always have a muzzle, and here, it is necessary, at early stages they «a flat face» .We have intentionally cited A.Barnett's book « a sort human » to show existence of the certain difficulties in the modern theory of evolution, especially in that its part which is connected with occurrence at the person and availability at it basic differences from animals. It is possible to refer also to D.Michie's statement in occasion of dolphins: «... The basic obstacle, impeding to a dolphin and the person to enter 'conversation' with each other, maybe radical distinction in them the cognitive worlds » [44, p.177]. The similar statement can be met at M. Rutten which on the basis of the analysis of evolution of a recent life ascertained, that «... The origin of the person essentially differs from occurrence of mammals » [61, p.163].
About qualitative distinction between a brain of mammals and the person writes J. Hamory: «...
Even between a brain of the person and the most developed mammals (for example, the chimpanzee) exists the big distinction - and not only quantitative, but also qualitative so even the comprehensive analysis of a brain of an animal cannot lead to satisfactory understanding of all completeness of mechanisms of functioning of a brain of the person » [54, p.13]. Let's afford one more link on Teilhard: «... Before an animal one area of a reality in which we develop but where it cannot enter is closed. Us divides ðîâ or a threshold, insuperable to it. Being reflective, we not only differ from an animal, but we others in comparison with it » [62, p.137]. Once again we shall remind, that, in our opinion, the essence of a question is not so much in a reflection (special-purpose models too possess self-applicability), how many in language on which it occurs.
Objectivity for the purpose of should note, that in occasion of similarity and distinctions of the person and the monkey there is an opposite point of view. We shall refer only to one citation: 'Speaking' monkeys have shown, that between the maximum primates and the person there is no impassable precipice, and there is a continuity » [63, p.177]. Difficultly, being the mathematician, instead of the biologist to enter on the given problem a debate and to make comments on opposite statements on the same question representatives of different biological schools. As though reconcile opposite sides, we shall refer in what time on so author often quoted by us: « Spiritualists are right, when they persistently protect transcendence of the person in relation to other nature. But also materialists also are not mistaken, when approve, that the person is only one member in a number of animal forms » [55, p.139].
Accepting the offered model of evolution, it should be admitted, as monkeys, and bears, « both bugs, and spiders » is all deadlock from the point of view of reason of a way of evolution, 'splinters' of greater explosions. The author would not like to insist very much on not all the recognized thesis that the person has occured not from the monkey, and from the unknown person to us of an essence, but to mention this fact on the basis of the described plots considers possible.
To told it is possible to add one more thesis. In the world surrounding us we see many special-purpose models, and universal - one. This fact should not seem strange as specialization inherently is plural. Basically, universal structures too should not be unique. Example from area of computing models: the universal Turing machine and the universal electronic computer. But it is not necessary to forget, that the nature always went from simple to complex, accumulating idle time. Therefore it is quite possible, that in conditions of the physical world surrounding us the person (and still, probably,) should be put an alive cell in conformity universal model.
It is asked, what for it was required to quote the works which are not concerning the basic subject matter and to go deep into an evolutionary jungle? It would seem, it withdraws from the basic way, complicates reading. However, as it has been told, the author had a calculation. It was necessary not only to offer us model, but also to show, that it 'works'. And the first attempt 'to start' model has appeared, in our opinion, quite satisfactory.
The model has confirmed existence of three basic types of the brain offered by the evolutionary theory. The basic today's concepts keep within our concept about evolutionary progress. Some difficulties of modern biology connected with an origin of the person, wonderfully are reflected in difficulties of an explanation of occurrence of universal model if to be guided by the traditional approach. We plan some way of overcoming of these difficulties to models, as a result of it there was a possibility somehow to explain paradoxes of reconciliation of embryos of animals and the person. Let for biologists the given explanations will seem flimsy: well already that the model allows to build hypotheses.
However it is time to us to return to discussion of the main question of this chapter. It is a question of self-applicability of model. Whether it is possible to formalize and describe process of self-applicability, say, any algorithm? It is a vital issue as in case of the positive answer to it it would be possible to count on a rapid progress in studying of reflective structures. But, alas... Usually, when the algorithm of work of model is known, and the entrance word it is possible to tell with what will be a target word is known. In case of self-applicability there is a record of algorithm, more precisely, the entrance word equivalent to this record is known, but is proved, that there is no algorithm which would allow to tell, what target word. Thus, there is no algorithm which would describe self-applicability: it is possible to ascertain only a post factum - there is it in the given model or it is not present. Differently, the problem of self-applicability of Turing machine (its any version) is algorithmically unsoluble.
The concept « algorithmic unsolvability » should be discussed in more detail. First of all, it is not necessary to think, that so far as it carry to some problem it lays down on it as an eternal brand, carrying it to the category incognizable. Algorithmic unsolvability has no anything the general with agnosticism. However similar "brand" at once carries a problem to the category most difficultly tractable though resolvability, cognoscibility of the phenomenon connected with such problem, is not denied. Simply, essentially are at a loss and if to be more precise - essentially there are impossible formalized ways of the decision. To explain the outspoken thesis, let us refer to one example, often contained in the literature. This is the famous problem of Fermat, whose history is extremely interesting and instructive, but our path passes its history.
Everyone, having secondary education, will understand, that below the algebraic equation is written:
in which, x, y, z - unknown variables, thus it is considered, that the variable n accepts any integer values 1,2,3, etc. The Problem the Fermat consists in the following: it is required to find algorithm which would allow to define integer values x, y, z for any whole n. At n=1 the problem is solved easily: for any whole x, y value z is equal to their sum. When n=2, x, y, z it is possible to find some values a trial and error method, for example, x=3, y=4, z=5 or x=6, y=8, z=10. It is proved, that at n=3 the equation has no integer roots of distinct from zero, but this proof is unfair for other values n.
To date, the author is aware that the problem of Fermat's alleged algorithmically unsolvable (have to write "allegedly" as an absolutely reliable information, we unfortunately do not have). It means, that there is no sense to look for the uniform algorithm of the decision suitable for all whole n, it is not necessary to spend for it forces and time though for some specific n the method of the decision will be sometime found, or will be proved, that integer decisions are not present, as it happens for n=3.
As to self-applicability of theTuring machine, by means of not so complex though enough the 'thin' proof was possible to state the statement: the problem of self-applicability of the Turing machine is algorithmically unsoluble. It means, that it is impossible formal methods (on the basis of the analysis of the table of the car) about any car to tell, whether there will be it self-applicable or not. At the same time the answer to a question to receive it is possible, "having constructed" the machine and having checked up, what property takes place. Actually similar check not always provides the answer to the problem - self-applicable or not. Really, if the car stops, means - self-applicable. But if does not stop, we can tell nothing. Perhaps, it would stop, allow it time to work longer. Means, looking on « own description » machine, we cannot tell, it will transform it to what word. Though, if the machine "to construct" and it will appear self-applicable, a target word interesting us to define very simply: for this purpose it is enough "to start" and look the machine at its output.
That the problem of self-applicability of the Turing machine is algorithmically unsoluble, distressingly. However us, let it will not seem strange, the given circumstance pleases. Be all differently, problems of consciousness, essence 'I' of the person, probably, would appear for a long time solved. If it has not occured, it is possible to assume, that we on a proper way.
Self-applicability of the universal Turing machine models that general, that under our assumptions provides the foundation for occurrence of the subjective beginning. But we cannot tell, what should be structure of an operating arrangement universal Turing model that it was self-applicable. We can try to find any structure which will be self-applicable, probably, we can find some such structures, but we never can tell, how them to find.
From here follows unfavourable (and it is possible, just, pleasant) a conclusion, following that process of self-applicability is not maybe described by any algorithm. As we have assumed, that process of self-applicability of the universal Turing machine is model of one of links of consciousness on the basis of all told it is necessary to declare absolutely neatly: the part of operation of the brain, connected with the advent of consciousness, - not algorithmic process, and, consequently, for it basically does not exist the formal description. Therefore, considering the most different sides of activity of a human brain, it is possible to tell, essentially specifying written earlier, that though the brain works as a whole algorithmically, its one function - realization of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning - not algorithmic. Confirming of this statement R.Penrose  book can serve, for example, in which problem of 'arrangement' of consciousness are devoted chapter 9 and 10. For this reason there is no formalized way to creation of the subjective beginning in artificial systems though informal or partially formal ways, certainly, remain.
It is known, that the operating arrangement of the universal Turing machine standardly and without any variations of its structure provides realization of any algorithm. Whether it is possible to raise the question (very important question!) about existence of various versions of structures of an operating arrangement of universal model? Basically, yes, and the more so it is admissible, when this question is put in connection with another - in what language the description of the information processed by model is given? So, for example, one of versions of the universal model, the described M. Minsky [48, p.174], works in the binary alphabet. Naturally, the model working in other alphabet, should have other structure. However the principle of its work should remain constant as in what to the form the information (what has been coded there was a language of concept of the information), it always can be reduced to the uniform form, in particular, to binary.
Most likely, the information in a brain is presented not by a binary code and there are some forms of its concept. However the unity of a material world leads to the conclusion that it is impossible to speak about an any variety of these forms: they can be only such what are caused by an environment. In one models, the caused forms can be presented to others - only some of them all. But thus the cores from them, such, for example, as a possibility to process visual, sound, flavoring, etc. the information, should for different copies of model (in fact, people) to be uniform. Therefore it is possible to speak about uniform principles of construction of structures of operating arrangements in different copies of universal model.
Let's ask the next question. How practically to realize self-applicability in model? If to mean realization of universal model on a paper it is necessary to know the table of work of its operating arrangement, to be able to record it in entrance language for model and to submit this record on an input of the machine, checking, whether there will be it self-applicable. However it is possible to speak about realization of model of the universal Turing machine on the computer. Then the expert experimenting this model should know the table of an operating arrangement and should be able to recode elements of such table in entrance record. On the basis of it the program of code conversion is maybe written. The program is an algorithm. From here the important conclusion follows: to realize self-applicability in model (as well as consciousness in an actual brain), in the information of an input the algorithm of translation of own description is necessary for model (or for a brain), as well as the mechanism of realization of this algorithm.
Incidentally, studies K. Pribram, show that the operations of coding and recoding of information occupy an important place in the processes related to the functioning of the living brain [64, page 84]. Anybody, certainly, does not know while, whether these processes are connected with the mentioned program of code conversion of the information of the table in entrance record somehow, but to pay attention to the given circumstance for certain it is necessary.
To make the further statement more clear, we shall afford the following note. Each of us perceives only the own consciousness, the perception of another's consciousness is impossible. To speak about materialistic understanding an offered phenomenon of eternal life, it is very important to establish, as the consciousness of one person corresponds with consciousness of another. Let's try to make it by means of our model.
Earlier by us it has been stated (and in view of the link on a principle of work of the universal Turing machine) the regulations about existence of some internal language of the universal Turing model and, most likely, "internal" language of work of a brain in fact are proved. Whether these languages in different copies of model are identical, or they can be various?
As to, so to say, semantic (semantic) side of language it, most likely, is identical to different copies of model as semantics is defined by structural features of model, and the last are considered identical. If to consider syntax of language, here the answer to a brought attention to the question not maybe so unequivocal. Really, principles of construction of language (so to say, its grammar) can coincide at different copies of model, but components of language (i.e. its alphabet) in different copies of model can how to coincide, and can be different. From the point of view of construction of universal model and its functioning both possibilities are admissible and have the right to existence. And how to be with internal language of modelled object, i.e. a brain? The same or different symbols code components of its internal language? On this question, using concepts only theories of algorithms or computer science, unequivocally to answer it is impossible.
From practice of progress of computer facilities we know, that variation of the alphabet with which works as the computer, most significally influences its structural organization and even on principles of its functioning. For this purpose it is enough to recollect, for example, experimental computer ' Promin ' which in due time worked not in traditional binary, and in a ternary number system.
At the same time there are no theoretical restrictions on construction of the universal Turing machine working in different alphabets. Abundantly clear, that tables of operating arrangements at such machines will be different not only on record of symbols, but also on number of conditions though all of them will carry out the same algorithm of interpretation. The theory of algorithms supposes such.
But it is thought, that the nature could not admit similar 'irresponsibility'. Really, if internal languages of modelled subjects (read, a brain of the person) are various, are various and fundamental, forming structures and functions of a brain. How many, sorry, 'brains', it is so much and structures, and all of them should be presented genetically. It is asked, whether favourably to the nature to contain growing 'databank' similar beyond all bounds, all time being under threat of reception of unpromising generation because of incompatibility of brain structures of parents? If such way was, it has very long time ago terminated disastrous deadlock unknown to us a population. The conclusion about existence of some internal, uniform language at all people on which brain function of consciousness is carried out, thinking, follows not only from the resulted statement based as though on common sense. To it there are also more weighty confirmings [41, p.55].
So, the theory of algorithms is indifferent to a choice of the internal alphabet of work of the universal Turing model, and at the same time a number of works on an artificial intellect and as common sense prompt, that this alphabet at different copies of model should be one so, structures of operating arrangements are identical. In this connection we shall consider one more analogy.
Imagine some TVs costing by a number at which the same program is included. Let it will be devices of different marks - lamp and on micromodules, old and new, with the greater screen and small. TVs are made of different types of details, basic diagrams can differ (it to a question on various ways of coding of internal language), but a principle of functioning - transformation of a radio signal to video signal and then in the image (it to a question on a grammatical system of internal language) one. We speak here not about technical principles of realization as there is a traditional TV, is digital, and about deeper, establishing - from what in what the information will be transformed. Pictures on screens will differ under many characteristics, but it all the same the same picture.
Using the resulted analogy, we shall remind, that in our understanding self-applicability is a process. Structures, its realizing, in any details can differ, but process is uniform. Self-applicability or is, or it is not present. But if it is, it - one, different self-applicability cannot be, there can be only any distinctions in its display as the pictures shown under one television program on different devices 'are various'. The first link of consciousness entered by us maybe (arbitrarily, certainly) is assimilated to a television picture: devices (people) are various, and a picture (self-applicability, a reflection) - in fact one. Thus, on the basis of the previous statement it is possible to approve: the consciousness at all people "is arranged" equally; more precisely, forms are identical at essential distinction of their contents. It is a conclusion - a major landmark on our way.
Here concerning concepts of the form and a content with reference to consciousness it is possible following analogy. The first link of consciousness is a vessel which at all people has the identical form. The second link (content) - that is poured in a vessel. From simple everyday reasons clearly, that in one vessel it is possible to pour good dear wine, and in another, same under the form - a smelly liquid. If to be guided given «analogy of receptacle» further modern, traditional understanding of consciousness assumes, that « the form of a vessel » at all people is various. From such understanding of any idea about eternal life, naturally, cannot follow.
Earlier we have emphasized, that both of a link forming a circuit of consciousness, exist is interconnected. And how to estimate a situation when the person sleeps and see dreams: there each of us either the spectator, or the participant, or both that and another together, i.e. occurs, let in the deformed type, a certain similarity of «conscious activity». There are dreams when 'I' am maximum naked. In such dreams at 'I' was not present a position, there is no trade, there is no educational level, there is no precise spatial and temporary attachment - there is only 'I'. At the same time at sleeping the consciousness from the point of view of the external observer does not function, but it does not function and in a condition of a faint though under medical readings the condition of a dream differs from a faint. Probably, though this idea is not indisputable, during a dream with dreams unlike a faint process of a primary reflection, i.e. self-applicability of brain structures prevails. Probably, during such dream the brain tests the fundamental structures as ñàìîïðèìåíèìîé information system. On self-applicability fix is checked rigidly enough, but at the same time structure comprising unlimited possibility. In a model version is an operating arrangement of universal model. It - a basis of bases. If regularly operating arrangement it is possible to realize any algorithm recorded on a tape.
Let's lead with the universal Turing model three enough simple experiment. Experiment the first. Let in our disposal there are two copies: Model "A" and model "B", differing the information recorded on their tapes: the model "A" let will have a tape "a", at model "B" - a tape "b". Both models work with the same alphabets. On a condition operating arrangements at both models are identical. We shall transfer a tape 'a' on model 'B', and a tape 'b' - on model 'A'. What will occur? Apparently, that model 'A' becomes model 'B' and on the contrary.
Experiment of the second. Entry conditions in this experiment are similar to conditions of the first experiment. We shall change at models operating arrangements. What will occur? Anything, model 'A' remains model 'A', model 'B' - model 'B'. But if models work in different alphabets both described above experiment will appear unsuccessful as the modified copies of models will not work.
Experiment the third. We shall make the new operating arrangement equivalent to operating arrangements of models 'A' and 'B' and we 'shall force' it to work, for example, with a tape 'a'. What model thus we shall receive? Naturally, model 'A'.
What conclusions can be made of these simple experiments? A conclusion two. First, the characteristic of model, its distinctive sign - the information recorded on a tape, and only it. Differently, the universal model is identified according to the information of, recorded on a tape, but that it universal and stable, is defined extremely by structure of an operating arrangement, as well as property of self-applicability. Secondly, process of invariant carry of an operating arrangement from one model to another is equivalent to process of reconstruction (reproduction) of an operating arrangement. These, at first sight, actually are of fundamental importance especially special conclusions. They allow to throw the bridge from formal model to understanding true essence of the human person and eternal life "I".
Now we shall make attempt to consider process of self-applicability from the practical point of view. In this connection we shall compare our assumptions to data of the science studying a brain. Such comparison before a conclusion applying for something serious, is necessary.
How what we name the term self-applicability is maybe realized, in structure of an actual brain? To answer this question, it is necessary to agree neatly, first, that self-applicability is the actual process, being model reflection of processes of a reflection objectively existing in a brain. Secondly, as a brain - a material body we should consider the mentioned processes too as material: they can occur only in the certain physical environment, and their carriers - the certain realities of our world.
It is known, that from an environment in sense organs of the person the information acts by means of electromagnetic (light) or acoustic fluctuations (sound), tactile influences, etc. In a brain, as well as from a brain in a body and back the information is passed in the form of chemical influences, electric impulses and potentials. Any different ways of signaling inside of an organism till now it is not revealed. If it so the description of structure of a brain or its any part should be passed in language which material carrier can be the mentioned chemical or electric influences. When there is a process of self-applicability (more precisely, reflections) the information on a brain is read by a brain just as the information acting from the outside, i.e. there are same chemical reactions, are generated the same electric signals.
It is known, that work of a brain is accompanied by electric activity which can be recorded in the form of electroencephalogram (EEG). Most likely, EEG gives a certain integrated record of activity of a brain; fondly to expect, that having deciphered similar record, we can read through an idea. The experts, engaged adjustment and repair of the computer, cooperating with it by means of measuring devices, perfectly understand 'language' of pulse diagrams or the curve of potentials removed in various points of electronic diagrams and displayed, for example, on the screen of an oscillograph. But even such expert, it is as though thin it felt "pulse" of a computer, looking at impulses and strobes of pressure, one can tell only - the computer properly works or it is wrong. And any of them, looking only on the screen of an oscillograph, on readings of other measuring devices, not knowing the diagram of the computer, a principle of its work, cannot tell, the computer solves what problem: whether it calculates a root of a quadratic, whether processes the paysheet.
Pulse diagrams, the curve of potentials, recorded in various points of diagrams of the computer - analogue EEG, removed from a bark of a brain or in its any local points. Process of activity of a brain though and not literally, we shall compare to work of the computer on the decision of this or that problem. The given analogy shows, how 'language' of electroencephalogram that makes information aspect of work of a brain is distant. Nevertheless, we believe, that EEG can clear something in process of a reflection (self-applicability) interesting us. As the reflection (self-applicability) is accompanied by the certain stream of the information its any trace should be displayed in the electroencephalogram. Whether it is possible to find this trace? Some specific properties which are resulting from self-applicability of model, probably, will allow to carry out search.
First, self-applicability consists in reading the same information, and this reading, probably, occurs to the certain periodicity. Therefore the trace of process of a reflection (self-applicability) should be, most likely, periodic and stable enough. In this regard we shall dare to result pair citations from K.Pribram's monography « languages of a brain »: «... Activity of the central nervous system possesses such stability. A nervous fabric spontaneously (and self-applicability just spontaneous process. - B.P.) generates electric potentials »; «slow variations of a condition of a nervous fabric are caused by influence of an environment and depend, certainly, on previous activity of an organism. But they also have the internal laws and an own rhythm of activity which causes repeated variations of conditions of a nervous fabric that does them in each point in time only partially dependent on influence of an environment... Because of that groups íåéðîíîâ possess spontaneous activity, cyclic or carried out under the certain program, the reasons for variation of conditions in nervous system are concluded not only in an environment, but also and in the brain » [64, pp 92,94]. Again there is, as they say, an occasion for reflections.
Secondly, during a deep sleep dreamless or in a unconsciousness when 'I' temporarily disappear, process of a reflection (self-applicability) stops, that inevitably should lead to disappearance of a trace on the electroencephalogram.
Thirdly, in a dream with dreams when "I" act in the "cleared" form, the trace of a reflection (self-applicability) should act more distinctly.
Let's compare told with the following citation: «... Interesting dissociation between generation of pulse activity and fluctuations of an electric condition it is observed during one of phases of a dream. This phase is characterized by fast movements of eyes... And electric rhythms which can be recorded from a brain and which are unexpectedly similar with EEG an awake condition (we shall notice, that in a view of our assumptions no unexpectedness here is present. - B.P.). Being it is woken at this stage of a dream, the person almost always informs, that it saw dreams whereas at the people who have woken up during other phases of a dream, such messages happen are rare » [64, p.99].
Thus, it is possible to specify enough wide range of stable specific signs which presume to carry out search of processes which model analogue is self-applicability existence. The certain comparisons which are not applying for finality, it is possible to lead already now. In last from resulted above citations the alpha a rhythm is a question of the original brain activity, named.
Describing the given phenomenon, expediently to not be engaged in free retelling, and for best accuracy to continue the further citing of some sources.
«... Rhythmic fluctuations of electric activity in parieto-occipital region usually disappear at opening eyes though can be restored at long yawn. On the basis of this old supervision the alpha-rhythm has been certain as rhythmic activity with frequency in a range of 8-13 Hz, disappearing at the open eyes. Berger has assumed, that the alpha-rhythm disappears owing to concentration of attention to spur... » [67, p.243].
« Works of last years have shown, that for blockade an alpha of a rhythm novelty of spur has predominating value <...> Therefore fuller definition an alpha of a rhythm... There will be a following: Rhythmic activity with frequency of 8-13 Hz, which to desync visual activity and attention <...> In that instant when the patient loses consciousness (from a narcosis. - B.P.), the curve is immediately filled high amplitude with slow waves and becomes amazingly similar to the records received at patients in a coma or a faint... » [67, p.242,246].
«... Dovey has carried out research EEG at group of healthy children by means of the automatic electronic analyzer. On the basis of such analysis she has come to conclusion, that the strip an alpha of frequencies is available in occipital area for all children, even the smallest (six-monthly), but in the curves, not subjected to such analysis, it happens is disguised by slower high amplitude rhythms. With the years these rhythms become all less and less expressed while approximately by 10 years do not become such insignificant, that cease to mask an alpha frequency » [67, p.253].
« During this period (quiet wakefulness. - B.P.) in area of consciousness free associations prevail. Thinking productively, standard actions can be easily fulfilled. On electroencephalogram the phenomena of synchronization of rhythms are marked, thus the basic biorhythm, or an alpha-rhythm is optimum expressed... Strengthening of activity of mental activity is shown in increase of intensity, vigilance... The attention is concentrated, the behaviour is organized, work is productive, reactions fast, precise. On electroencephalogram thus the phenomena desynchronization biorhythms take place, appear low amplitude fast waves... If activity of brain functions raises excessively, emotional overexcitation (fear, fury) is marked alarm. The attention is disseminated, the perception is limited, characteristic a condition of confusion. Efficiency of behavioral reactions poor, they are disorganized, self-checking behind them is upset. On electroencephalogram is expressed desynchronization of biorhythms, low amplitude waves of different frequency » [68, p.116,117].
« I.Camille and others, using a procedure of instrumental stipulation, have shown, that people can easily to learn be distinguished, produces their brain or not the waves of the certain form following with frequency about 10 times a second, that is so-called an alpha-rhythm, even if they collide thus with difficulties in a designation of various conditions of consciousness as which they feel. Examinees who were capable to define a condition an alpha of a rhythm, approved, that it is characterized as a condition of pleasant slackness. Similar experiments to find ways of reduction of duration of process of the training which has received a wide circulation in a zen-Buddhism, at yogis and psychotherapists in the West which objective - definition and achievement of a condition of pleasure » [64, p.126,127] are now spent many.
And, finally, to everything we have mentioned in connection with the alpha rhythm of human, should be added that Norbert Wiener in his time had sufficiently severe EEG, and adopt in their analysis of the autocorrelation methods. The results (although, as Norbert Wiener wrote, "for satisfactory examination ... further research is needed" [69, p. 280]) show a surprising stability of the various characteristics of alpha rhythm.
All the texts quoted above concerned an alpha of a rhythm of the person. And what it is possible to tell about EEG animals? Unfortunately, the author now has no in this regard the information in the same volume, as for the person. It is possible to refer only on the data received by E.Evarts in 1967 to whom refers in K.Pribram's book: « during wakefulness at the greater part of neurons a brain of a cat a repeating regularity in categories is not observed. During a usual dream the same cells are unloaded by explosions of spikes with the periods relative not activity between them. These intervals about conform to the fluctuations at the same time recorded by microelectrodes. However during a paradoxical phase of a dream neurons give intensive categories with the intervals repeating about four times a second, but electric records from macroelectrodes (EEG) do not reflect this dominating rhythm » [64, p.99].
Let's finish tiresomely long, but the necessary citing. What of all it it is possible to draw conclusions (even approximate, not applying on indisputability)? The first. The alpha-rhythm of the person surprisingly precisely corresponds with process of self-applicability of universal model. The person is quiet, weakened, the consciousness, "I" is accented – an alpha the rhythm is swept up, self-applicability in model is. The person distracts on spur, sensation 'I' becomes dull – an alpha a rhythm desync, self-applicability in model remains, but its display masks the processes going on a tape. The person sleeps dreamless or loses consciousness – the alpha a rhythm disappears; when in a brain there is no consciousness, there is no also a self-applicability in model. The person dreams – again appear an alpha of a wave, but in fact there is no such dream where dreaming itself was not the spectator or the participant, i.e. again there is a consciousness only opened inside and caused in model by the same self-applicability.
The second. Similar to an alpha the rhythm at animals (on an example of a cat) looks something in another way. And process of self-applicability in special-purpose model not that in universal.
Conditions of a trance at yogi, shamen are known. Such person in a condition of a trance as though 'goes deep' into own the consciousness. To us it is thought, that deep self-scrutiny conforms to such condition of a brain when the person effort of the will as though disconnects many channels on which the information acts in a brain from the outside, leaving working only those channels on which process of a reflection (self-applicability) is carried out. In this condition when 'I' am as though cleared of all terrestrial, the trace of a reflection (self-applicability) on electroencephalogram should appear especially neatly.
The reader, naturally, has a question: how much proved the positions put forward here, maybe, it is simple nothing the supported guesses? A.Turing in due time wrote, that the guesses are very important, for they prompt the directions useful to researches. Giving a tribute to the known mathematician, we, nevertheless, should specify, that any guesses, but only the certain bases having under self are important. In fact, these bases have been stated in previous chapters. We need to repeat only them once again in more concentrated form.
First, principles of functioning of alive organisms (from their elementary 'brainless' types up to a brain of the person), considered as principles of functioning of the systems processing the information, well enough are entered in model of Turing machine by virtue of proved in the theory of algorithms of capacity of such model to describe any algorithmic process of processing of the information.
Secondly, such concepts as with-knowledge, 'I', about-with-knowledge themselves – the processes assuming a reflection, i.e. construction of the attitude of any element to themselves, naturally and logically raise the question as to, and whether there can be an attitude of a reflection to simulate by the Turing machine. One of ways (and maybe, unique way!) modelling of this attitude self-applicability is. Such process for which description there is no algorithm.
Thirdly, mysteriousness of consciousness, mystery of occurrence 'I', especially in connection with such concepts as life and nonexistence, somehow corresponds (at least, in consciousness of the author of this book) with not study of property of self-applicability of the Turing machines and basic restrictions on a possibility of carrying out such researches. Marvin Minsky, for example, names statement of the problem about supply on an input of the Turing machine of its own description – 'terrible' [48, ñ.187]. Certainly, it, most likely, only emotional exaggeration, but exaggeration, about much speaking. Marvin Minsky, for example, names statement of the problem about supply on an input of the Turing machine of its own description – 'deadly' [48, ñ.187]. Certainly, it, most likely, only emotional exaggeration, but exaggeration, about much speaking.
Fourthly, the distinction established as a result of their comparison self-applicability special-purpose and the universal Turing models well will be coordinated with the fact of qualitative distinction between a brain of an animal and the person: the first in any way do not separate themselves from an environment that it is impossible to tell about the person. In occasion of comparison of these models it is possible to state one more remark confirming validity of our guesses. If to take the initial not trained conditions of a special-purpose model and a universal model the first model at the earliest stages of the work can appear 'more cleverly', than the second model. We constantly observe it, comparing initial fitness of cubs of many animals and absolute feebleness of newborn children.
In this seat of a statement of our hypothesis we consider as the duty to lead comparison of the offered model concept of two links 'I' with positions of various psychological schools concerning consciousness and consciousness, 'I' the person. It is how much possible to judge, all scientific schools of the psychologists, engaged studying of the given problem, it is possible to divide arbitrarily on two groups. "I" first at studying give a priority to internal factors (introspektsionizm, itself actualism, Freud's psychoanalysis). In the second group the priority in occurrence of consciousness is given external circumstances (a number of domestic schools of the psychologists considering, that introspektsionizm, etc. in something adjoins to idealism).
The author is not familiar with opinion of representatives of the western schools on our researches in the field of psychology, however, not being the expert in this area, he should notice fresh, as they say, a sight certain èäåîëîãèçàöèþ positions of some our modern psychologists which was expressed in reassessment as we consider, external, public factors in an explanation of essence of consciousness and, consequently, underestimations internal. It is interesting to result the statement on this account E.V. Ilyenkov (which in any way cannot be carried to the category of 'orthodox' philosophers) in occasion of essence of thinking (thinking – narrower concept, than consciousness): « Inside of a skull you will not find any functional definition of thinking for the thinking is function of the external subject influence actively defined under the form of external things, instead of under the form of a body of a brain » [40, p.54]. In connection with this citation very much it would be desirable to recollect mirror area. We should remember, that reflective capacity of such area is completely defined by the form of its "body".
In model all zones of the information, except for a zone of own description, are invariant in relation to an operating arrangement and, from this point of view is equal in rights participate in formation of that in an actual brain is connected with consciousness though do not define it completely. Thus abundantly clear, that zones « a data set about model » and « set of algorithms of work of a brain » are reflection of a zone « a data set about an environment », and in this sense the citation resulted above is absolutely fair. The first link in a circuit of consciousness arises at processing the information of other nature, being the internal factor, instead of external. Therefore representatives of introspektsionizm school, despite of elements of idealism in their concept, as well as an obvious inaccuracy of methodology, also have appeared, in our opinion, are close to true: their understanding of essence of consciousness and self-consciousness in the certain degree coincides with the model offered in given work. However, it is possible to tell and so, that our position concerning 'structure' of concept 'I' is more close to a position of introspektsionistes though the essence of the phenomenon is treated by us in another way.
So, A.Pfender considered, that 'I' of the person am « a mental object not giving in to definition which is necessary for comprehending in all mental concepts as forms the central vital point of any mental life » [70, p.7]. The representative of the neo-Freudian direction K. Horney wrote: 'Actual' I » am the most essential, best and valuable part « I » <…> That is why I … I » as speak about actual « to that central internal force, the general for all people and, nevertheless, unique at each person » (cit. by [70, p.23]). We divide this idea though in occasion of « the best and valuable » a part "I" do not judge so categorically.
In Russia in the end of XIX century the professor of Kazan university E. Beavers wrote: « And if self-knowledge, « I » in itself are empty, constant, if they do not develop, their signs and functions can change under influence of the spiritual force concluded in consciousness » (cit. by on [70, p.12]). If to compare with citations in which we, naturally, not accept all unequivocally in them the intuitive presentiment of is felt that takes place during self-applicability of universal model, and, consequently, and reflections of a brain: and algorithmic unsolvability (« a mental object not giving in to definition »), and basic difference of self-applicability from other model processes (« the central vital point », « the central vital force »), and an invariance of process of self-applicability (see last citation).
And, finally, one more statement belonging D. Eccles which we shall result without commenting and which, in essence, throws the bridge to a problem of eternal life: « I am assured, that there is the deep sacrament of my existence which are falling outside the limits any biological explanation. I can not give a scientific answer to my ancestry, that I, as if suddenly woken up and discovered that I exist as the embodiment of the conscious "I" in my body and I can not believe that wonderful, divine gift of consciousness is not future, it will not be enshrined after death in another existence "[70, p.16].
Right at the beginning of consideration of Turing machine we believed, that it only the "algorithmic" model and principles of its structural construction have no attitude to the structural organization of an actual brain. Really, any tape with the tape drive mechanism, there is not present any reading out or recording head. Most likely, if the brain also works with alphabetic concept of the information, it only one of ways used by it; for certain the brain can operate with larger blocks of the information which for it are elementary and indivisible.
There is no doubt that the storage of information in the brain differs from its character-the tape Turing machine. Nevertheless, the huge (theoretically) compute the possibility of a universal Turing machine with its unconditional structural simplicity is impressive.
Earlier it has noted been, that the basic lack Turing model as computing means – the lowest speed of processing of the information. However, considering speed of a brain (about 20 binary operations in a second), it is necessary to tell, that it just does not impress in comparison with speed of modern computers. It is known that the brain compensates for its low for the usual standards of performance parallelization of operations on information processing, as well as efficient use of previously accumulated data. In that case and in Turing machine speed is maybe raised due to parallel processing the information at once on several tapes. We, certainly, do not call up to identify structure of a brain with Turing machine, but simplicity of its arrangement, on the one hand, and unlimited functionalities – with another, persistently force to spend let not straight lines, but parallels between it and a brain.
Nevertheless, after many reasons in favour of the stated guess that capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning is result of action of the mechanism of internal reflection of structure of a brain (that conforms to self-applicability of model), requires the further specification. The thing is this. It is important to emphasize (in it the author it is deeply convinced), that now any of really existing, information systems created by the person is not arranged so that it could be put on trial self-applicability. In this sense we have no practice of self-applicability, short of every minute dialogue with it. Certainly, the final part of the previous phrase is true only in the event that the put forward hypothesis is fair.
Probably, it is possible to think up simple enough Turing machine which will possess property self-applicability (such simple machine "is thought up"). Probably, it is possible to construct and the actual automatic device which model will be this machine. Here the attention to the question is not brought – as well as from what to make such automatic device in what in some detail words it will process the own description. Another is important – whether such automatic device will possess consciousness? For certain, human consciousness – is not present, and any else consciousness is not known to us yet.
Thus, when we speak about correlation of self-applicability and consciousness, certainly, it supposed, that it is a question of self-applicability not any information structure, and special structure organized (as it was mentioned). But why self-applicability in the special structure of the organized system brings to existence the subjective beginning, a consciousness being by 'part', instead of something another, for example, a melodious ring or periodic flashes of light? It we, most likely, never learn. It is possible to tell only, that between static properties of any system and displays of its action, as a rule, seldom it is possible to establish a relationship of cause and effect by only theoretical conclusions. It is more likely established by practical supervision and experience.
In an everyday life we have got used to not pay attention that many displays of this or that process in any way do not result from structures of arrangements, the mechanisms generating this process, and, moreover, in any way in them not designated. Really, why any moving mechanism causes noise though noise as those neither in one detail, nor in one element, for example, the car is not present? And how many we investigated units and details of the car, there are geometrical interfaces, smoothness or a roughness of surfaces, ease or weight of details, etc., but there is no noise: it appears as consequence of movement of the car, that is – process.
You can disassemble a computer on microcircuits making it, to subject to their various physical and chemical influences, etc., but you and do not establish, that the given computer if it have not subjected similar execution, and have simply included, maybe, has printed on the screen of the monitor any pleasant phrase for you. Similar examples it is possible to result set. From them it is visible, that is difficult, and at times it is simply impossible to connect static properties of any object with its certain dynamic displays.
To the stated position adheres not only the author, not too is not enough confirmings to that, here, for example, two of them: « However the fullest description of structure of body, that is its description in a staying idle condition, has no right to give out itself for even approximate description of that function which it carries out, for the description of that business by which it does » [40, p.37]. « Here inevitably there is « an effect of assembly »: at the certain level of complexity of system it has the properties which are not deduced from properties of its elements » [25, p.38]. It is necessary to note, that « … a problem of assembly, i.e. definition of properties of system on the basis of the information on properties of its elements, not only arduous, but it only starts to be realized as one of the most actual and most universal problems of a modern science » [25, p.54].
Unfortunately, to prove the regulations about of communication of self-applicability of Turing machine put forward by us and human consciousness it is impossible, as in this position concepts not giving in to mathematical formalization consciousness, 'I', with another – a combination of words « self-applicability of definitely organized system », on the one hand, appear, in which, first, was unclear, what it means « definitely organized » (though, maybe, sometime, something here becomes clear), and, secondly, process of self-applicability never is maybe described by algorithm.
Probably, the essence of correlation of consciousness and self-applicability is to some extent similar to the basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms that any algorithm is maybe set through a function chart and is realized in appropriating the Turing machine. As is known, this hypothesis is not maybe proved, the truth, its validity constantly proves to be true in practice. Consequently, the statement about impossibility of the proof of the thesis about consciousness interrelationship and self-applicability should not become a fatal obstacle in a way of studying of consciousness just as the impossibility of the proof of the basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms does not impede to its successful progress.
Let's afford in the end of the chapter small deviation in occasion of entered by us and often used term the subjective beginning which designates the new concept which is absent in the literature on psychology (at least, in that sense which we try to enclose in it). We do not approve hasty introduction new essence and if all the same it is necessary to do it it is necessary to comment on the given circumstance in the special image. In essence, the new term should conform to the concepts mentioned earlier « pure I », « primary I », etc., taken of an arsenal of idealists. However if in works of the last they were used as not opened primary essence, we understand display of quite actual process existing in model and not less actual process being by reflection of a primary reflection of an actual brain as the subjective beginning.
Chapter 6. PARADOX of the FROZEN BILLIONAIRE
And while on the ground there is a love,
I shall not die, friends, I shall not die.
It seems to us, that we have enough brought out clearly, that objective processes of self-applicability of universal model in different copies of model are identical. But as self-applicability (it – the first level of a reflection), under our assumptions, models capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, that, consequently, in modelled objects these capacities are identical. How it is possible to check up told? Practically in any way, as each of us is doomed to be only in the, roughly speaking "skin" and is not capable to appear in "skin" of another. At the same time the conclusion about similarity of mechanisms of occurrence of the subjective beginnings for us is so important, that some explanatories are simply necessary. We shall try to go from experiments with the models described in the fifth chapter.
If at the person it was possible to localize spatially the brain mechanisms which are responsible for processes, equivalent to processes of self-applicability in model, then we could lead experiments with people (mental, certainly) to feel in what the essence of this similarity, that from it can follow. We are assured, that mechanisms of generation of that conforms to process of self-applicability of model, in a brain exist, but a question of their surgical allocation, certainly, is problematic, and about it below will be still told. However we shall present, that it is possible. Anyway, to present it is much easier, than to imagine, that such consciousness.
So, let at the disposal of surgeons there are two patients A and B, given a voluntary agreement to operation. Surgeons allow an absolute guarantee of success (it to present more difficultly, but also is possible). Operation goes synchronously on two tables. At patients A and B appropriating mechanisms (with what can appear any structural or functional formations) which are separated from a native brain are allocated in a brain. Patients thus, naturally, lose consciousness (intracranial operations, as a rule, go without the general narcosis). The separated site of a brain of patient A is transferred to a table, where is patient B, and on the contrary. Then the second stage of operation on transplantation of sites of a brain is carried out. We consider, that technically both stages of operation have passed flawlessly. And here there comes turning point, patients come to consciousness. The surgeon costing about patient A asks: « Who is you? » If our assumptions are true (section see « Three simple experiments »), and operation is executed faultlessly, patient A should answer, that he is A. Certainly, patient B should answer, that he – B. Here that such similarity of the subjective beginnings.
The described operation – only the hypothetical model, necessary to us for an illustration. To speak about practical realization of such operation, perhaps, it is not necessary not only now, but also in the long-term future. It's not so much the technical difficulties of its implementation - life shows that technical difficulties are overcome, sooner or later, but in principle, we think, can not it. This conclusion is based on the following considerations.
The brain mechanisms providing a reflection of brain structures, naturally, exist, but they do not possess spatial localization from "point of view" of a surgical scalpel. So categorical conclusion is done on the basis of our understanding the nature reflective structures: the reflection is not a simple feedback when from an output something moves on an input. Such communication can be localized, torn off and again to restore. In case of with model analogue of a reflection – self-applicability – we saw, that in model localization also is possible: there is an operating arrangement, there is a tape, are possible any recoding arrangements for transfer of own description on a tape, etc.
However the example with actual physical reflective structure in the form of to a floor of a mirror sphere (and not only it, certainly) installs in us confidence that reflexivity (capacity to self-reflection) is not a slice of structure, it is it, its immanent property. In an example with area reflexivity it was provided with curvature of a surface. Whether it is possible 'to cut out' at area curvature, not having destroyed its? The translucent sphere is the elementary passive model. The same it is possible to tell about any system having set of conditions. The condition as cannot be cut out' property of system. What should be expected from a brain?
We shall name similarity of the mechanism of occurrence of the subjective beginning at people who live at a time, «parallel similarity». Means, at all people living now on the Earth, we shall consider, parallel similarity of the first link of consciousness – that link which we have connected with self-applicability of universal model, link which we have compared to light or with an internal reflecting surface of mirror area takes place. But at once there is a question. Whether it is possible to speak about similarity of the first link of consciousness at the people living at various times? If we accept parallel similarity a brought attention to the question should answer positively. We shall name occurring at different times similarity 'consecutive'.
Then, being based on concept « consecutive similarity », it is possible to tell, that the subjective sensation of a constancy of existence 'I' objectively takes place. Life and nonexistence – objective factors, but is subjectively perceived only life, nonexistence subjectively is not perceived (it even hard to imagine) because there is no subject, its perceiving. If there is a subject there is no nonexistence. Summarizing, it is possible to state following position: the person is the living being possessing capacity of subjective imperception of nonexistence. Means, if there is a subject a question on its capacity to be the person to be in relation to its capacity the subject becomes secondary.
Let's explain this brief, but important enough maxim about the person consideration of some mental examples. Let on the Earth during enough long time will die, and after this one person will be born only. 'I' born (under 'I' hereinafter am understood only capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning – the first link of the consciousness formed by extremely internal language of a brain), being identical with 'I' died, create subjective sensation of existence, same what he was at the one who in an example is designated as died, but when he was alive. Thus, nonexistence 'I' subjectively as though does not exist, short of moderate, subjectively not perceived timeframe while born leaves nonexistence, does not begin subjectively this output which becomes realized in more mature age more precisely while he to feel. The considered hypothetical pair « died - born » it is possible to repeat some time on a timebase.
Now we shall alter an example a little: has died some person, and one was born. We shall remind, that when died were still alive, their first links "I" were identical. To bring a attention to the question whose "I" several died as though continue "I" born, it is incorrect (though such question at once arises). It is incorrect, as no extension of type of resettlement of souls is present. There is an occurrence of the subjective beginnings which are assumed identical.
Let's continue reasonings. We have agreed, that "I" conform to occurrence of the first link process of self-applicability in universal model. What occurs, when the person strong sleeps dreamless? The person is alive, but his 'I' for the period of a dream for it and for associates as though disappear. A dream and death, certainly, qualitatively various phenomena. But from the information point of view of distinction between them, more likely quantitative. In one case the process modelled by self-applicability, is absent temporarily, in other – for the specific person it disappears for ever. Physiologically a condition of a dream (even sopor) and death basically to distinguish it is possible. But what it is possible to tell about such case when the person has died in a dream? When 'I' have disappeared : when he has strong fallen asleep (or, for example, has fallen unconscious) or when heart has stopped, and in cells of a brain there were irreversible variations? Also it appears, that from the information point of view it has occured in an instant of a stop of the process modeled by self-applicability, i.e. in an instant strong falling asleep or losses of consciousness. But in this case the assumption come out above of a constancy of subjective perception of and existence is exposed to the certain test.
It is impossible to tell in advance with absolute confidence that will occur after the person will fall asleep or will fall unconscious. It is more probable, that he will wake up in the first case, and probability of awakening, probably, a little below in the second. And just! Consequently, when is according to the assumption stated above when the person strong falls asleep, his "I" even temporarily disappear (both mean at once a link of consciousness). At the same time process of conceptions going on the laws on the Earth (we shall not speak about Space for we while know nothing about it) starts process of potential occurrence of the first links, identical with the same links 'I' fallen asleep.
Whether any contradiction is hidden in a considered situation, capable to scatter in ashes all our constructions? Therefore we shall analyse it more closely, having called up to the aid the arbitration judge. So, "I" persons A have temporarily disappeared (person A strong sleeps), and no point of view A is present. Process of creation of organism X (while only an organism!) has begun, but any "I" there while was not present, and, consequently, also there is no point of view. Therefore there is no attitude between A and X if our arbitration judge as there are no elements between which it could arise has wanted to consider it. When A will wake up (falling asleep and awakenings embryo X while develops, will repeat repeatedly), no problem is present. 'I' persons A though and with breaks, exists and when organism X process which model is self-applicability (maybe begins is born, it begin in a womb of mother, maybe, later certain time after a birth), and at own appears the 'I'. From the point of view of person A appeared 'I' persons X am another 'I'. From the point of view of person X (the point of view, he appears when X grows up a little) he possesses the 'I', and for it 'I' persons A am another 'I'. Now between A and X there is an attitude: "I" persons X – another in relation to A, and "I" persons A – another in relation to X. For arbitration judges it is different "I", at the same time excellent and from "I" arbitration judges. All is natural.
Now we shall assume, that person A during a dream has died (not God bless us!), and, consequently, his 'I' have disappeared. But, as it is stipulated above, by virtue of similarity of their capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning the disappeared point of view of the person 'I' become (more precisely, becomes, but not in sense of transition, and in sense of occurrence) the point of view of new, born person X (let us recall section « the Lesson of geometry with a physical bias »). 'I', though also the future, persons X now not another in relation to A, and become the attitude most to myself or as mathematicians speak, the attitude of a reflection. In relation to "I" arbitration judges "I" persons X am another "I". And between "I" arbitration and "I" persons A of the attitude are not present the judge, as there is no person A. All also clearly, naturally and logically consistently.
Now imagine such a case. A person soundly, and that it is important to emphasize, dreamless asleep long lethargy. Or, say, A person with medical and technical facilities frozen for a long time. Let us analyze the situation when A wake, or will be successful with the physiological and psychological points of view unfrozen. From the point of view of "I" arbitration judges the situation though it is curious, but is logically consistent. And how there is a situation for "I" persons A from his A the points of view (in fact this point of view again, after a long break, thus jump, has appeared)?
Person A, probably, will tell: « Ah, as long I slept », - and then "I" of person X any difficulties and contradictions in our reasonings do not bring existence. Now we shall rise on the point of view of person X. For "I" persons X of the contradiction too are not present, person X when its person will definitely be generated, probably, will exclaim (if learns about this case): «Ah, as interestingly»! But at the same time from the analysis of the described situation follows, that there was as though a bifurcation "I" (not persons, and the first links "I") persons A and X. To bring even greater clarity in the described plot, further it is more convenient to conduct a statement from the first person. Suppose I, the author of this book, I am the above person A. Until the last second, until there is my mind, I exist as a person A, then, after a lethargic sleep person A, I gradually emerging as a new person X (children are born always). For "me" as persons X, all other people – "not-I", including person A who, finally, will wake up. And so far as I, now, as person A, shall wake up, I and should perceive myself, as person A. So who I am person A or person X? Nevertheless, and such situation it would be possible to consider consistent because of existence known to us properties of parallel similarity. However, the author inclines to the view that the contradiction still may have, but otherwise, arising not from the mistaken premise or conclusion, but objectively existing. Such contradictions in mathematics are designated as antinomy, in everyday practice they are often called paradoxical. What is an antinomy, we can show the example of "the paradox of a rural hairdresser."
Let's consider the rural hairdresser who shaves all those and only those residents of the village who have not a shave. Does he shave himself? If he shaves himself according to a condition it to shave should not. If it does not shave himself, according to the same condition he should shave himself. Differently, we come to the contradiction for our hairdresser should not shave and shave himself at the same time. This antinomy is based on everyday situations. We can point to the existence of purely mathematical antinomies, such as antinomy Cantor, Russell, etc. We do not here the issue of overcoming the antinomies - is an independent and extremely complex problem.
And now we shall talk about billionaires, to be exact, about those people (without any pejorative sense) which, possessing sufficient material means, were solved on unprecedented, and the main thing, not tested operation of "carry" of the hopelessly sick body in the long-term future, when the word "hopeless" will leave a lexicon of medical practice. It appears, as we marked if consistently to spend the concept of subjective immortality in this case it is necessary to collide with a paradoxical situation which and to explain not so simply. Again it is more convenient to us to pass to the form of a statement from the first person.
Let me - that a wealthy man who, having tasted, well, the charms of unlimited material possibilities, knowing that sitting in my illness does not leave me now, no chance to use them further, estimating his age rather optimistic, not trusting the promises of religion on eternal life beyond the grave (as it is a reasonable principle - the best the enemy of good) or, conversely, completely believing her and really evaluating a measure of retribution, try to delay it and, finally, relying on the ability of today and even more so, tomorrow's science, I give myself in its hands.
What it is possible to tell about me after the first stage of operation on freezing – I am alive, or dead? My body is in a cell deep cooling, the blood in my vessels replaced by LPG, the body is dehydrated, all biological processes are stopped. From a materialist (and any) point of view I am dead, as the mummy in the sarcophagus. If the frozen stage of stay of my body lasts long enough according to the concept of subjective immortality, I shall arise and I shall start to be realized as new, other person. And consequently, when "billionaire" will wake up (if the second stage of operation will be successful), it will be not I, it will be for me other person. Briefly, I shall fall asleep as the billionaire, and I shall arise other person though "billionaire", having woken up, too will name itself "I". Here – an essence of paradox, and more clearly, perhaps, you will not tell.
It should be noted that the "paradox of billionaire" (albeit in a different form) appears in other models of immortality - Christian, Hindu, Buddhist. None of these religions "not provided" a return to the previous form of existence, since otherwise the person, the soul, "I" would "provide" a memory of paradise (hell) or interrupted incarnations. In this context attracts attention the following fact.
The bible (New testament), proclaiming Jesus Christ's lips a heavenly empire of an eternal life, and describing acts of the Christ on revival of Lazarus, the daughter of the chief of a synagogue, etc. , a word does not mention « posthumous memoirs » revived which, apparently, are logical for using for a background of the kingdom of God.
Traditional materialistic understanding of death as does not result nonexistence in any paradoxes after 'revival' (it is emphasized, - « does not lead to paradox », and « does not resolve paradox »). There can be an opinion, that occurrence of paradox of a similar sort should cast into doubt validity of our model of an eternal life. But it is thought (and in it is one more side of our hypothesis), that paradox just and should be by virtue of a paradoxicality of occurrence of consciousness. It is shown not only in algorithmic unsolvability of self-applicability of model, but because of overlapping in consciousness incompatible essences. The consciousness as information process of the reference of knowledge most on itself (I have the information that I have the information, …) should be invariant to the physical carrier by principle PII (a principle of invariancy of the information ). Really, when we speak even about identical material bodies always we use possessive pronouns "that", "this" or expressions of type «is this car, and that is same, but another». Otherwise we concern to reports of information and we speak: « it is the same information » though, for example, about weather in Moscow for July, 22nd, 2010 have heard by radio and have read through on the Internet (if, certainly, radio and the Internet did not contradict each other, that also happens).
The information process causing occurrence of the first link of consciousness (self-applicability of universal model), should be invariant to a physical data carrier and consequently it would be possible to tell – « at subjects A and B the same information that they have an information » (i.e. as though the same consciousness). At the same time, as soon as the brain begins reflected, there is a property which psychologists and philosophers sometimes designate the term «bimodality» ("I", "not-I"). Thus, already the first link of consciousness unites controversial properties: it is identical at all and at the same time it – a source of uniqueness. Especially it well is visible on a hypothetical example of the person and its absolute copy. They are in all things identical, and at the same time each of them is unique. On the basis of told, to us it is thought, that noted paradoxicality of consciousness should prove, as it can happen with «the frozen billionaire». Therefore some of them, dared to freeze till the best times let will reflect. That is easier: to die natural death, and then as though to be embodied in other, the truth, most likely, not the billionaire or 'to wait' for the hour to revive, but at availability while not resolved paradox whether the billionaire, whether not the billionaire? However, here one more problem: whether billions on maintenance of the frozen condition will thaw? Eventually, why to try, if is money as the science from it will not lose and, most likely, will take from all this situation new knowledge.
All our unexpected conclusions are constructed on property of similarity of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning. It is possible to object, that identical is not the same. We shall show, that property of similarity (in the mathematician - congruency) has thin and artful character. Let's admit, you have taken two identical brand new coins and have put one in left, another in the right pocket. Then have taken out them therefrom, have properly shaken in palms and again have sent in pockets, on one in everyone. Whether the specific coin is asked, has moved to other pocket or has remained in former? To answer this question it is impossible if to not assume, that coins possess consciousness and speech: then they precisely would tell, that has occured.
However it appears, that availability of consciousness too does not allow to understand, whether there is a speech about identical or the same. Here it is necessary to do mentally certain fantastic, but experiment not contradicting logic. Experiment inspired S.Lem's book « the Sum of technologies », and it is possible, with any variations it is taken therefrom.
Let's assume, that somebody comes in a cabin for removal fluorogram. However actually it not x-ray installation, and the device for reception of a precise replica of the person, and this copy during fractions of second is created in same cabin, being by a number. Both cabins are put on a platform which can rotate. Being in cabin the person does not see a platform and another cabin. The operator of duplicating installation knows about experiment only.
Let from the beginning of experiment the platform starts to rotate slowly but so that being in cabin the person has not noticed rotation or could carry it due to easy dizziness. That the patient while there is a turn of a platform, did not have a bewilderment – why so long remove fluorogram, the operator can tell through a microphone about availability of defect which through pair minutes will be eliminated.
The operator knows, that in an instant after call of the patient in one of cabin in another there was its copy. But here it had any insignificant for a course of experiment a breakdown. It has for some reason struck root it to eliminate has distracted and when has stopped a platform, he could not tell, in what cabin the original and in what a copy.
The interior of the corridors leading to cabins, is mirror symmetric, and consequently the original and a copy, leaving them, do not notice any variations. The operator, observing of the original and a copy on the telemonitor, now cannot tell, who is who. Either of the two it considers, that 'I' (here similarity full as are identical not only the subjective beginnings, but also persons, that is it is a question of similarity of both links of consciousness), and in general they do not think of it, and try to calm itself and to assure of safe result of the analysis.
And here in that instant when they have made some steps on a corridor (it is repeated, they know nothing about each other), occurs unforeseen for a three (the original, a copy and the operator), but not for us who are spending mental experiment: the heavy plafond hanging on a ceiling, is broken, someone from a two – either a copy or the original falls and kills on the spot (terrible conditions of our experiment are those).
Survived on the corridor easy goes further. If he, having left it in adjacent facility, will notice, that its orientation concerning visible houses through a window has changed (a platform after rotation could borrow the position which is distinct from initial), him can tell about expediency of division of an input and an output.
The person is not present, and for he, as they say, there are no problems, but those has appeared at us: who has survived – the original or a copy? The operator does not know, we do not know, left the hospital a person in general nothing suspects about possible substitution and other taken place events. Who is he? Here it is valid, 'terrible' experiment, from our point of view, in a conclusive way enough shows equivalence and invisibility concepts 'I' of two individuals.
But that we had 'to invent' by complex cogitative constructions, the nature, to be exact, its part – the mankind, every second makes in the way, given to it the nature. Yes, the child is not a copy of the parents, it is not similar to any of them on the, so to say, to the material organization; its person when will develop, also will be unique. The same and at the same time in internal perception capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, and not only in relation to 'I' of parents, but also in relation to 'I' of any person will be unique only.
Examples are given, explaining analogies under the text of the book also is made much, and the full clarity all the same is not present, in what the author there and then makes sure, having retold written to the family and close people. Question for understanding really very difficult, especially at a level of the everyday, household description. If transformation was actual then all is clear. But it is not present! The Author to not be ashamed to admit, that at it, really, there are no words to express all this without use of concepts: "Model", "Turing machine", "self-applicability", « two links of consciousness », etc. And, being put by the ordinary words, written becomes truism.
Really, we use words 'identical', 'similar' when the person speaks about other as about similar. We perfectly know, that after us there will live people, and also will name itself 'I'. And up to us too there lived people and also named itself "I", and no immortality here is present: it will not be simple me, there will be someone another, etc.
And to explain, that it not so, the author is solved on a desperate step: immortality of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning it is possible to explain through « transformation I » which ostensibly all the same occurs. But also in this case into a window gets, though we have exposed it for a door, the same question: in whom though and "as though", there is "transformation" and from whom it has occured? When this question will be set by again appeared person, it is necessary to answer – is not known, as action is entered as though with likelihood laws and 'choice' of in whom as though migrate as though the soul, is as though accidental.
That we have named capacity to occurrence of subjective sensation 'I' is known, was intuitively perceived by people very much and very much for a long time (some background of this idea can be seen in following section), and also for a long time there was an idea about following lives, which was maximum precisely and is clearly expressed by some religions in language available by it. More precisely, language which has been found or created for this purpose, and became a basis of a religious fabric. Soul – the ingenious invention of a human idea! And now some part, in general, not religious people has a belief, that after death there will come a new life, only in an image of other person. However by virtue of difficulty of its verbal expression without use of mystical attributes, as well as owing to absence of official support it remains especially personal, hidden, almost intimate feeling which is not playing any social role.
However the ice, apparently, has got under way, about what speak some publications of last time. For example, « … the modern science has seriously concerned to a problem of transformation. It is clear, that the saved up material a little. Process of transformation cannot be fixed really at a level of laboratory experiment. But, on the other hand, the collected information requires the analysis of all versions scientific methods » . Citations it is not necessary alter, but we very much would like word 'transformation' to take here in inverted commas.
Thus, "I" as set of perception of the specific person and a specific body am unique, unique and, alas, mortally; but "I" as capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, inherent in any human individual, we believe, is immortal. The child is born, develops, becomes the new person. It again 'I'. 'I' in shape of the new person shall enjoy pleasures of a life, and to suffer from misery. 'I', as the new person and a new body shall live. I writing these lines, and you, their reading, anything, anything we do not know about those future persons which life we shall live the same as also they, learn nothing about us. At the same time at us the general capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning which is property of any of us and all mankind.
Leaning on all told, considered, analysed above, we represent, that the subjective perception of a situation some person A (it after a while will die) and born person X can be described so. The person 'A' lives, feels world around and, finally, there come instants of sensation of leaving which is not perceived as leaving, and … next there are any inconsistent, not adhered to a scene of action and time of a sparkle of consciousness, all over again they very rare, next them becomes more, they start to shine that person of the person who has bent above cot, the high fence, through a hole in which climbs any boy, the angry voice, forcing is such tasteless porridge. After the strip of light becomes wider, and suddenly it will want to shout: «Mum, it is I, me am terrible, let's sing to me ditty to fall asleep!» Finally, time when any uncle will ask will come: « the Boy (girl), what is your name? » - and sonorous children's voice will answer: « My name is X ».
Thus, objectively the death is a death, disappearance of a specific body and the specific person. The death subjectively is an instant sleep the specific person, and the slow awakening stretched in time – another. Objectively the death exists, but is subjective, in relation to itself, it is not present.
If to track our argument, the following chain turns out: descriptive model of subjective immortality – consciousness – a brain – information model of interoperability of a brain with environment – Turing machine – self-applicability of Turing machine – internal language – modeling 'I' - two links 'I' - similarity of models of the first links 'I' - similarity of the subjective beginnings – eternal life 'I'. The key links in this enough to a long chain are, in our opinion, three links: structure of consciousness, existence of internal language and similarity of the first links 'I'. But here that is interesting: in these conclusions us could result not only the mentioned way following from a scientific idea of second half XX of century. On an example of the Buddhism we saw, that people enough for a long time have understood essence of subjective immortality, immortality 'I' (we spoke about it in the second chapter).
However the phenomenon (a phenomenon of eternal existence) which, in our opinion, exists really, has been misinterpreted and became knowledge-faith as to it mismatches the valid prototype. The explanation to similar discrepancy consists in absence of the conceptual concept adequate to thus phenomenon and suitable for its proper expression of language means. Therefore we shall make one more attempt to find evident analogy to a discussed phenomenon.
For the beginning let us recall section of the fifth chapter « Uniform language of people ». The example with the television image on different screens allows to pass to more serious analogy. Than the included and switched off television devices differ? At the answer to this question it is convenient to take advantage of terms 'system' and 'condition'. The included and switched off TV is the system which is being different conditions.
A.Rapoport in the article "Mathematical aspects of abstract analysis systems" wrote: "The system from a mathematical point of view - this is some of the world, which at any given time can be described by attributing specific values to some set of variables. The combination of these values defines the state of the system "[24, p.98]. The idea to connect concept 'consciousness', « the subjective beginning » with concept 'condition' should not seem seditious. In this case following conclusions are admissible.
First, the condition is not independent essence of system, it - its property. And if questions on existence or not existence of system (its life are lawful or nonexistence) to speak so about a condition is inadmissible: the system can be in it or not, it can stay in some specific condition or pass from it in another. If the system has passed from a condition 'a' in a condition it is impossible to tell, that the condition 'a' has disappeared, that it in system is not present more, as under certain conditions the system again can pass in a condition 'a'.
Secondly, if availability 'I', i.e. consciousness, an essence of a condition of system its capacity to be in this condition is defined not by material structure of system, and it, say so, architecture. The given conclusion once again shows, that communication of the person, "I" of the person with its body am not so rigidly determined, as it is considered to be, this communication more flexible, mobile. Therefore concept that « the person of the person depends from unique a combination of genes », not quite well.
Thirdly, each person corporally something differs from another, therefore to speak about equivalence of bodies there is no sense; even if this equivalence would exist, it from the point of view of finding-out of essence 'I' gives the person of nothing. To bring a attention to the question on equivalence of conditions in different systems it is admissible. Because, under our assumptions, « capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning » - a condition of system, and essence of this condition that it is the certain and unique subjective quality it is possible to speak about this condition outside of the attitude to specific system: it is equivalent property of each system of type of a human brain.
The one who even a few sign with philosophy of the Buddhism or Hinduism knows, that in these doctrines transformation least contacts the award an eternal life. What here the award, one trouble with this transformation. And there is it not to be pleased. It - only chance (the truth, not one) for the guilty person to correct the sins that corrected and cleared from terrestrial are nasty to merge in eternal pleasure with Uniform, with the Absolute, with the Deity. Here, the true objective of the person - to reach similar merge. And a terrestrial life - only suffering.
Go and try, find such innocent, just or, as a last resort, with an insignificant handful small sins which for all life or will not sin a lot never, or, having sinned a lot, in hundred times them will correct? Such after death at once receives an eternal, unearthly blessed life. So is not present, the person is by nature guilty, and knows, that is guilty, and sins it is more and more: terrestrial passions do not give.
And here still transformation and if in the previous life you have not lowered the sin to be to you in a following life any more the person, and say, the crocodile. Oh, as easily with transformation from human existence to roll down in animal, and there still below - in vegetative! And as it is infinitely difficult to return back: thousand and thousand years are necessary. However, some branches of the religious doctrines professing transformation, are limited only to human existence (we wrote about it), but it does not change an essence of business: was tsar - became the shoemaker, was the shoemaker - became beggars, or the leper outcast: to deserve movement in the opposite direction, oh, as it is difficult!
So, what turns out? Transformation gives some chances of rescue, but to realize them not so simply: the person is weak. And let you live many times (it is admissible optimum cases - all time by the person), but are sad, basically, there were these lives for when the faith in transformation has very long time ago arisen, the life of overwhelming a number of people was difficult and dangerous. And the objective of a life (read, sense) has been put by priests, religious governors other: it is necessary to not be pleased lives (even to its small pleasures), and sinning with fear to be rescueed from a sin.
Presently, when a life, despite of any incidents, it is unexpected presented this life, it is considered the highest blessing and the greatest value for the person, the religious idea of transformation now should not seem so gloomy gift of the Maximum forces. And if transformation, really, exists, soberly conceiving person can look at it not as on chance of rescue and as on chance to live not one, and it is a lot of lives (means - human). In this situation, really, for the second time, that these lives will proceed in different personal hypostasis. Differently, on transformation it is necessary to look not as at a way of rescue, and as on outside of personal 'immortality'. We take this word in inverted commas as a series of individuals alternates series of deaths.
Now, using the methodology accepted by us, we shall compare once again model of eternal life on the basis of a reproduction of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning by that is saved already up by mankind on this problematic, i.e. to religious understanding transformation (thus we shall be compelled to repeat a little, that conforms to the invitation once again to visit the corridors passed earlier).
The basic element inherent in the concept of immortality, as well as transformation in any of the main world religions, is spatial moving soul (or any other essence) the died person from a body in other, inaccessible ordinary feeling the world. Whether is the soul a thin material substance or ideal essence - all the same: it after death of the person should leave a body so the last is subject to decomposition and destruction. However, at the certain stages of progress, for example, Christianities, it supposed (we about it spoke), that after Terrible court of a shower of everyone died again will incorporate to the former body, wonderful image risen of ashes, or will get new, indistinguishable from former. For us the essence of an explanation of immortality here is important - something should leave one body and move to other body or in other seat. Therefore the fact of spatial moving let even mystical soul - an instant materialistic enough. Preceding once again emphasizes our special approach to structure of knowledge: the element of knowledge (soul) - is invented and exists only in a head of the believer, and the ligament (movement as such) is quite actual.
Really, as it is possible to imagine extension of a life behind a coffin if to not assume, that from a body which soon will start to disappear and in due course will disappear, a certain element (soul) which, actually, and will continue a life is separated. To imagine a different way of extension of a life, apparently, it is impossible. And, nevertheless, the concept of immortality on the basis of a reproduction of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning allows to refuse a plot of 'moving' basically. And if there is no moving disappears an indispensability of introduction (we do not wish to tell new, but all the same …) the essence called a soul. Certainly, this concept as a historical, moral, religious image has the right to existence. But as the essence which is providing the foundation for 'mechanism' of eternal life, becomes unnecessary.
In the first chapter and in the beginning of this we on a number of examples tried to explain, how it is possible to imagine sensation subjective (we emphasize, not personal) immortality. The precise mathematical model of the attitude of elements of set (we here mean people elements) at such treatment of extension of a life after death does not exist yet though it is not excluded, that it is maybe created. It is important to emphasize, that any beyond the grave worlds with their attributes, any epoch-making events of type of the doomsday, any mystical transformations it is not necessary for us for a background of immortality. Only new understanding which, perhaps, can be considered as a paradigm is required: immortality - not in moving the same constant essences on axis of time, and in occurrence each time of property, precisely same, as well as former. As both new, and former properties (the reader understands, that for brevity we name property here all the same capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning) are created in internal language of a brain, i.e. in own, in any way coordinates not connected in this case with an environment,that instead of expression 'exactly' we with good reason can tell « this is exactly the same ».
In this connection once again we shall mention immortality in the Hinduism and the Buddhism. Leaving within the limits of these philosophies and religions their idealistic and supernatural attributes, we should understand, that such concepts as transformation, meditation and a nirvana is anything other as mystical interpretation of quite actual properties and conditions. Really, meditation can be treated as such condition of a brain which in òüþðèíãîâîé models is characterized by the certain degree of restriction of operations with a tape, why is more convex internal processes of self-applicability act. The condition of a nirvana is modelled by the full termination of processing of the information full or nearly so on a tape; process of self-applicability functions only, and only it and is perceived (it is natural, we do not consider physiological processes as in model they are ignored). As process of self-applicability goes on not cognized while us internal language and as this process by virtue of the algorithmic unsolvability at all maybe neatly is certain and designated, the subjective sensations arising at it, can be quite carried to area enigmatic and transcendental.
Certainly, people religious, predisposed to mysticism, perceive similar conditions as boundary, opening it 'window' in other, transcendental world. However it can find more rational interpretation which validity, probably, is available to check by registration encephalograms at the persons who are being a condition of meditation, with the subsequent analysis their alpha of a rhythm.
And, finally, transformation. For those whom our explanations have not satisfied, it is possible even to agree to the use of this term. Only if in the Buddhism or in theosophy terrestrial transformations occur as though with one "I" which, the truth, basically forgets the former existence (therefore subjectively perceives itself each time as the new person) in our case of transformation as those is not present, and there is a reproduction. If nevertheless to use the term transformation for « convenience of conversation » it turns out, that transformation occurs each time in the quite different person, and each "subsequent" basically can know nothing about "previous". Consequently, external essence of a Buddhist sansara, on the one hand, and a reproduction of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, on the other hand, as though coincide.
It is possible to make interesting comparison of a Buddhist sansara as carry of a pattern from one seat of the tape weaved from without initial and infinite strings, on other seat and the Turing universal model with its tape. The author would not like, that to it attributed availability of special sympathies to the Buddhism, however, first of all, it is necessary to be objective.
The human idea as it follows from the citation about patterns of the tape resulted in the second chapter, already during old times has caught information essence of the person though the person then about concept the information had no the slightest concept. Especially to be admired it, maybe, and does not follow, but the feeling of some surprise here is quite pertinent. Certainly,the webbing is only illustrative model. Tape of Turing machine - an element of precise mathematical model on which it has been shown, that it is not mandatory to stretch strings of a tape from the last infinity in infinity of the future to prove transformation.
As the reproduction of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning has elements of similarity to transformation in the Buddhism at a level of household consciousness occurrence is natural, at least, two questions. Question the first. Whom shall I become in a new life (the author considers convenient a statement in this seat of a message from the first person)? It is necessary to emphasize at once an incorrectness of similar statement of the problem - in model of subjective immortality the possibility of transfer by something from someone someone is vigorously denied. (To the reader, apparently, that speech here goes not about work of hereditary mechanisms). It is possible to state the given question differently. Who will be the one who after my death will have same (it is possible to tell and is more precise - the same) the first link participating in formation of consciousness, in formation 'I'? Such statement of the problem is quite correct, for we have assumed, that parallel and consecutive similarity of the first links "I" takes place. An another matter that there is no unequivocal answer to the given question. Some reasons on this account will be stated in last chapter.
Now the second, more private, a question. Whether I can in the following, so to say, a birth it to appear, for example, a cat? Competency of a similar question is especially obvious, that in the Buddhism transformation in animals is supposed. Again we shall emphasize, that in the given direct statement the question as is incorrect, for anything I to any future cat in our model is not passed. Let's state a question differently: whether the cat who has born after my death to have the first link of consciousness, same, as well as I have can? Considering fundamental differences between universal and special-purpose models, it is possible to answer unequivocally - cannot. Thus, the model of subjective immortality, despite of some external features of similarity to Buddhist reincarnation, has basic difference from it: the person can, as though reincarnate only in the person as from the person the person is born only, and from a cat - only a cat. About one important difference of model of subjective immortality from Buddhist reincarnation we say hardly below.
After the analysis of the questions and answers to them, some generalization of philosophical character arises. With the advent of on the Earth the nature knowledge itself 'has closed' the person as though only on it. From this point of view fauna - the passed stage of evolution, to it (stage) not maybe return.
And, finally, pertinently to emphasize (we hardly above promised it to make) one more basic difference of idea of Buddhist transformation from the offered model of subjective immortality. The first can last long enough, thus it is considered, that numerous transformations is a circuit of inescapable sufferings. Differently, the Buddhist sansara assumes a possibility of break of a circuit of transformations. Subjective immortality in original sense infinitely, the circuit of "transformations" is uncontrollable, and the unique possibility to tear off it is global death of mankind; we repeat - we know nothing about existence of space reason.
The idea of subjective immortality in own way, however, from materialistic positions, was put forward in due time by K.E.Tsiolkovsky. We shall result some of its records on this account: « … Subjectively death for anybody are not present. Any atom, any essence are not subject to it <…> the matter is that nonexistence is not marked by time and sensation. Therefore it as though does not exist, and there is one life. The slice of a matter is subject to a uncountable number of lives, though and divided by enormous time intervals, but merging subjectively in one continuous, and … a fine life. Usually speak: « I shall die, my substance will dissipate on all globe how I can revive »? But on it there is such answer: « Before your origin your substance too has been disseminated, however it has not prevented to be born to you. After each death the same turns out - dispersion. But … it does not prevent revival ». Certainly, each revival has the form, dissimilar with previous. We lived, and we shall always live, but each time in the new form and, certainly, without memory of the past » (cited on [6, p.172]).
We see, that the essence of subjective immortality here is seized with surprising accuracy, though and not without overexposure: we mean an ending of a phrase: « … merging in one continuous … a life ». However this overexposure is not on conscience « the dreamer from Kaluga », it - result of absence of conceptual elements in human language which could describe a phenomenon of subjective immortality adequately.
Proper, in our opinion, K.E.Tsiolkovsky's idea could not develop, as in its basis the erroneous thesis about temporary infinity of the Universe (« detsillions in detsillion degrees of years »), as well as too 'rectilinear' attributing to atom of property of sensation laid. The inaccuracy of these theses with reference to a problem of immortality quite neatly is shown in I.V.Vishev's book . However thus the author of the mentioned book as it seems to us, has not managed up to the end to estimate the universal concept of immortality offered by K.E.Tsiolkovsky.
Let's result the appropriating citation: « it is necessary at the same time to emphasize, that Tsiolkovsky's concept is completely not harmless. The idea which has seized he has not allowed he to concern more thoughtfully to a problem of ' physical immortality » as it any more did not represent for he the big value. It should cause the certain damage to the scientific decision of a problem of personal immortality » [6, p.175]. However, in several lines below I.V.Vishev goes on a concession: « Finally, even if to admit, that Tsiolkovsky of the rights and components of the person feeling atoms in due course will join in structure of other, maximum and perfect essences, nothing will change it, for such a fate no one skip » [6, p.176].
The reader, certainly, understands (now in a view of positions of the present book), that business not in « feeling atoms », and that on K.E.Tsiolkovsky was right. Eventually, at grandness of the phenomenon not too important, that will help its explanation - « feeling atoms » or the invariant subjective beginning.
As it was emphasized, a basic instant in the concept of subjective immortality is the hypothesis that the structure of consciousness is formed by two information links. The background of this hypothesis has been deduced from property of the universal Turing model. Reasonably interestingly to compare with our hypothesis to the concept 'I' in the Indian philosophy. Great philosophers of India learned, that the knowledge 'I' provides the foundation for any knowledge reached by a science, philosophy, religion. We now shall result long enough citation in which the essence of a question is as though accumulated and from which it is visible, that the Indian philosophical idea has found a course to a secret door, was knocked in it, but open, unfortunately, could not and has moved aside. « Usually we use a word I for a designation of our EGO, but the term self-knowledge means knowledge not the EGO, and « the maximum "I" which is identified with the Absolute, or Brahman, is considered as the base of our EGO and I am proclaimed to ours « original » … Functions of intelligence and reason change, whereas the self-knowledge is constant … The self-knowledge, being the catalyst of ideas, nevertheless does not assist penetration into transcendental areas and consequently that is above or outside ideas, is not maybe opened by means of reason and intelligence. And as those, that is being outside ideas, original I appear « true I», from this it follows, that, as it and is stipulated âåäàíòîé (the Indian philosophical doctrine. - B.P.), it is inaccessible to reason … We should acquire a method of an output for limits of intelligence and an eminence above area of an idea if wish to realize absolute "I". A method which here means, not that other as a method of yoga » .
Having analysed this citation, it is possible to state briefly following its basic positions (in occasion of self-knowledge as an investigative technique we hardly below even shall express):
- "I" am structured, it will consist of two parts - the EGO and « the maximum I »;
- «The maximum I» constantly, invariable;
- Reason, intelligence and « the maximum I » - various essence.
Thus, in fact there is a full concurrence to an essence of the universal Turing model, not such terminology only is used. But further - leaving aside. 'Self-knowledge' … is not maybe opened by means of reason … », - here is truly seized, that it is different, spoken by our language, processes, but the erroneous conclusion is drawn on the limited possibilities of reason. After such conclusion, apparently, it is the most logical to refuse comprehension of reason by reason. Compare to model: to ignore all operations on a tape, except for one with own description, and process of self-applicability remains in the pure state - here it, model « the maximum I »! Or we shall take advantage of "analogy" resulted earlier to light and subject matters shined by it. It would Seem, it is necessary to clear away space, to clean all subject matters, to give greater open space for propagation of a light stream. And actually a course erroneous: the subject loses a unique possibility of objective research of the phenomenon as among cleaned subject matters there is also a tool of research. The more close to objective (leaving in meditation, a nirvana, i.e. in process of self-applicability), the further from it. Aspiring to get in the transcendental areas, meditating … gets in them, but there already anything is not present.
Here, in our opinion, it is necessary to specify, about what there is a speech: about knowledge of the subject as object or about subjective knowledge himself. In the first case it is admissible and even it is necessary to carry out researches of mentality (or a brain) the person who is being a condition of a dream, meditation, etc. calculation on reception of the objective data, concerning various sides of activity of a brain, including that which we connect with model process of self-applicability In this case is proper. Possibilities of the researcher in this case are boundless and depend substantially on technical armament and functioned well procedures of researches. As to the second side of a question, namely procedures of self-knowledge it is necessary to concern to them more carefully; especially it needs to be meant at 'non-standard' conditions of a brain of the researcher.
The certain, intrinsic basis "I" as conditions of system (about what it was spoken earlier), let it will not seem strange, it is possible to detect … again in the Buddhism. « Essentially other approach we detect in Buddhist psychology. All Buddhist schools, without dependence from disagreements on other philosophical and psychological problems, approve, that individual "I" actually am absent, i.e. really does not exist and is the illusion which is not having « a true reality » … Connection dharma, which creates the illusion of the individual "I", is due from the standpoint of early Buddhism, the existence of karma, the creative force fed by the emotional affects of the individual "[46, p.145].
Really, the condition of system as material essence is absent; it only property of system and consequently in conditions of a mechanistic principle of thinking it is easy to it to attribute quality of "illusiveness". At the same time we, probably, so shall not be wrong, if we shall try to see in concept of a Dharma the first link of consciousness, a reflection of brain structures, self-applicability of universal model.
If we mentioned above religions of Southeast Asia it is interesting to pay attention to one, generally speaking, a prominent aspect connected with ethical sides Hinduism and Christianity.
It would seem, ethics lay outside of area of our consideration, however about what it will be told further, are closely closed with a basic of the universal Turing model, and we should pay to this attention.
« Hinduism speaks: « you are I » and consequently I love you and I regret; the christianity speaks: « you not is I » and consequently you I love and I regret. Distinction it is huge: in Christianity my near there is an individuality, the person, me opposite, unique and unique; in the Buddhism the set of various individualities is illusion, Maya, actually all of them - one, are identical in the essence … here there is and not maybe no individual immortality … » [66, ñ.66].
To the author as to the person, though also faithless, but living in the Christian world, naturally, more close and more clearly ethical standards of christianity when they are considered in universal measurement. Despite of such remark which the true Christian, most likely, will apprehend as a tribute of its religion, the same Christian should understand, that essence of such religious event as transformation, it has appeared more close to scientific interpretation, than the personal immortality proclaimed by Christianity. However from the fact ostensibly greater "scientific character" of the Buddhist concept we do not reach the conclusion at all about advantage of one religion before another. The similar idea does not arise at all.
Objectification by means of the Turing model, as well as the information concept of concepts 'I' the person and 'I' the subject allows to look in a new fashion once again at essence 'I' of the person, discussed in some works of Russian philosophers of last years, as well as to allocate an element of continuity of our approach in understanding essence of immortality in relation to their views.
So S.N.Bulgakov wrote: 'I' therefore can never, for one instant to become zero, that it is indissolubly connected with the predicate and in it, through it, with it it is, enters into life: real it is necessary existing, indefinable it is defined, besides not from the outside, but from within. This communication is indissoluble: 'I' without a predicate «worthless» to what does not concern, a predicate without 'I' am blind and «less-who» to anybody does not concern. Predictability, capacity to predictability, is not that other, as disclosing in spirit of its own nature and depth, the certificate of self-determination and self-generation. The predicate does not come from the outside as it can seem, but is generated in spirit … » [66, p.93]. (In the citation a word 'I' inverted commas by us. – B.P.).
Having left in a side religious terminology, having compared to "I" from the citation « I the person », and with a predicate - « I the subject », we make sure, that Bulgakov's statement is quite entered in our concept "I" (especially by way of existence of initially internal sources of an origin "I"). It is remarkable enough S.N.Bulgakov's guess in occasion of definition of essence of death looks in this case: whether « there is any death in known, conditional and temporary sense … branch of a subject (that is « I persons ». - B.P) from a predicate (that is « I of the subject ». - B.P.), or, at least, a paralysis of this communication? »
As we see, Bulgakov does not treat death as nonexistence, and for us it is important. In the terms used in due time by Bulgakov, we now, rejecting all clauses, can tell, that death it is no simple branch of a subject from a predicate, this disappearance of that form of a subject in which it existed (and, consequently, and break of communication between a subject and a predicate). However by virtue of absoluteness of a predicate, its isomorphism in each new birth can accept regulations about volume, that the predicate on death disappears only temporarily and, generating, as though continues itself. However this extension is realized not in itself (as at Bulgakov), and in the form of a new subject and, consequently, new communication between a subject and its predicate.
If to use and further "grammatic" terminology it is necessary to recognize validity of a following paradoxical situation: the main member in formation of a phenomenon of eternal life is not subject (it is passing), but a predicate. In view of told in a new fashion and as it seems to us, more soundly S.N.Bulgakov's following statement sounds: « … the subject (in our terminology - « I the person ». - B.P.), hypostasis, which is never limited to that it is looked in a predicate (« I the subject ». - B.P.) as ideal reflection, but he identifies thus a reality - the and a predicate, or, that the same, he feels force of the life going from he, and comes back to him, and this "life-giving" force and is, actually, existence … a life, a reality, a life ».
Attempts of an explanation of essence outside of personal immortality can be observed and now, thus attempts are done unlike a cited example, apparently, on the basis of positive scientific knowledge. "It (my birth. – B.P.) is too improbable to be random, and therefore some paradoxical way, it is necessary. It is natural to expect that the elucidation of the nature of this, apparently, still unknown need to be able to shed new light on the problem of death and immortality ... "[10, p.74].
However close perusal of work on which the link is given, does not leave doubt that its author for a background of the in general, in our opinion, the proper concept should enter (or to use) a certain additional essence without which as it has been shown by us above, it is possible to manage. « The present personal form which has realized actually represents only one of set of equally likely forms of my life » [in the same place, p.78]. In the given statement the idea divided by us that « my life » primarily in relation to the form of its realization, but that it, that is « my life » is the certain independent essence which is not having of a positive content, certainly, disputably neatly enough is expressed. Quite unequivocally this debatableness is shown in the link on Ashby: 'I' am not exterminable a self-conscious substance of Universum » [in the same place, p.81]. At the same time, defined 'I' am translated' from the language using indefinable essence (« a self-conscious substance of Universum »), on language of objective categories: 'I' not exterminable as constantly arises. It not is « a substance of Universum », it - internal property of definitely organized information system. And some model analogues of such structural organization are offered by us.
So, we have seen, that the universal Turing model has appeared a key, capable at a conceptual level of consideration unlock doors in understanding, both problems of consciousness, and a problem of immortality. However the key becomes similar to a universal master key if to ask a following question.
Whether it is possible to be limited to the appendix considered the Turing models to a brain only living beings, for example, the person or animals? At the author the impression is made, that universalism of Turing model, both special-purpose, and universal (the inevitable tautology), and consists that it conceptually describes process of processing of the information in any system where the information exists. Consequently, it applies and to a matter in general as philosophical category. We do this not ordinary enough conclusion, leaning on one of intrinsic properties of a matter - property of reflection which acts here not only as philosophical but also as the information characteristic.
But if the Turing model can be applied to the Matter as those with its property of reflection the statement of the problem about self-applicability of such model as reflection of similar process in modelled object is competent, i.e. in the Matter. We, certainly, know, that the certain structural organization is necessary for occurrence of self-applicability, but we already mentioned those while insuperable difficulties which wait for us on ways of its search.
Here we would like to note other, not less important idea: if we have connected process of self-applicability of model with elements of occurrence of consciousness in an alive brain, that, probably, is competent to raise the question about a possibility of occurrence of consciousness and in processes of reflection of a matter, especially when it is a question of processes of self-reflection. And as in the first instant the author this "opening" has been discouraged, it soon had to make sure, that the idea on availability of consciousness in all forms of a matter is stated, actually, very long time ago. It, for example, makes an essence of Buddhist philosophy, as well as philosophy Hinduism. The Same paradigm, but created in an antiquity.
However recently about any rationality of the matter start to mention and modern physicists. For example, an American physicist D. Bohm said: "... the mind is constantly present in all forms of matter, even in the simplest. In the electron in this case there is a very primitive form of mind, our mind is on another level, and perhaps at some other level is greater than our minds, and so on to infinity "[77, p.25]. We are distant from an idea to paste to this statement labels with accusations of idealism. We shall simply result one more citation: « … there is no area modern cosmology, physics, sociology and the more so psychology which advanced ideas would not have analogues and, moreover, available practical conformity in the Buddhism » . We with greater respect, with not smaller desire of understanding ponder upon ideas and guesses of ancient philosophers, in finds and statements of modern experts and we feel, that all somehow converges at one really existing point.
Subjective immortality, personal immortality - two phenomena, two dark blue birds. Here in fact as it turns out: that of anything, suddenly - almost flight. Whether it is necessary to choose, what to catch? No, it is not necessary. The first bird - subjective immortality - we shall consider, it is already caught: the nature has disposed and has presented it to us in a gold cell.
Only all of us still, in the blindness, we believe, that the cell is empty. Personal immortality is while a crane in the sky, it still needs to be caught.
Subjective and personal immortality - different phenomena, but they do not exclude each other and can coexist. We would not like to use here stereotypic definition 'peacefully' for social displays of each of them are represented so various, that it is better to let alone this side of a question while. Another matter, that comparison of these phenomena probably as from the point of view of scientific knowledge, and the ordinary point of view.
Let's discuss all over again a scientific side. Existence of a phenomenon of immortality to which the name "subjective" here is given, was suspected by people for a long time. This transformation both in the Buddhism, and in theosophy, and universal immortality on Tsiolkovsky. Probably, any versions about which the author does not know were offered still. The listed concepts are united by difficulty of scientific interpretation of the phenomenon designated by them. Perhaps, therefore the attitude to that subjective immortality is named here the term, from separate authors was and remains more likely negative, than guarded. And least it is necessary to reproach those people who show this attitude with it.
The essence of personal immortality is maximum clear (maybe, therefore the author has used earlier in relation to it definition "trivial"). At the same time for its practical realization the boundless field opens, and claims of a science in this sense are quite obvious. Besides the enormous "technical" difficulties which are laying on this way and not entering, as they say, in our competence, we shall stop on one basic instant. A number of the experts discussed a problem of personal immortality , have quite reasonably raised a question on conservation of identity of the person to itself on its duty (theoretically unlimited) vital way. If to understand the person as the certain set of information packages (and so we and understand it) very problematic there is an indispensability of conservation of all information complex which is available at the moment of time t by the time tn where n it is estimated, say, in hundreds or by the thousands years.
The analysis of historical experience shows, that social, scientific, household installations do not keep so long the form and a content constant and consequently infinitely long living person will be compelled to correct the information content from time to time. Probably, moral imperatives, but, first, are more stable and they do not remain constant, and, secondly, stable information formations are not mandatory for keeping at a 'personal' level: for these objectives information banks at a level of society (differently, that the culture is defined by concept) more approach.
Thus, the same person divided by greater intervals of time, in fact is not identical to itself, i.e. it are different persons. Certainly, in internal perception each infinitely long living subject will consider itself, though and changing, but, nevertheless - as the same person.
Now there is natural, but poisonous for apologist personal immortality a question - what volume (for example, in percentage terms) variations after which the long-liver will tell, and in fact I now not I (with an eye to, what I - another)? The Answer to a similar question very much is not simple, probably, it does not exist at all. Some instants connected with this question have noted been in section « Vital metamorphosises ». Probably, any stable milestone designating identity, it is necessary to consider early memoirs of the childhood or the important events in the personal plan (but why, only them?).
If to look at our daily behavior, whether that often we correlate ourselves to that whom we were not that some years, even in recent months? Besides nothing changes in the basic plan if to admit, that by means of, for example, hypnotic influence or psychotropic preparations (we here do not speak about an ethical side) the long-liver "has forgotten" the childhood and others important, but old events. Certainly, loss of the person in internal (yes, and external) perception - tragedy if instead of the "lost" person does not arise new. And consequently, that it did not feel painful failures of memory - by means of the same influence other legend of a life is inspired him (her). We understand, that in a reality all told would be interfaced to much wide range of problems, but only as though the hypothetical model here is considered.
Eventually, business not in that - whether identifies itself each time the person with that, what it was any time ago to confirm - « I it or not I », and, certainly, that to what is the person for itself each time, every instant, is not present what name, except for as "I". And, as understands everyone, giving a thought about it, business not in the name, and in an essence about which during the book it was spoken much enough.
Expressing thus about the concept of personal immortality, we at all did not mean to its critic: simply in such a way it has appeared possible to throw the bridge between two forms of "realization" of an eternal life. Therefore, at all not belittling a role of scientific knowledge in the decision of a problem of personal immortality, the author hopes, that from now on for a science there will be "place" in research of other phenomenon.
Now we shall address to other side of a problem of immortality. If to approach from positions of personal tastes on the last, as they say, do not argue. We also shall try to not do it - only we shall designate positions. In occasion of that at us is named by subjective immortality, we shall result three statements.
« If on your death your memory will not be showers yours property, whether that can be named you the same person who was in a life? … To live again and to not know that was, there is the same, as to not be », - wrote A.N.Radishchev (cited by [6, p.161]). It is not necessary to argue with the authority, lived in other epoch for it is possible to fall into disgrace to nowadays well apologists, and on concepts of that time the quoted phrase is fair. To us it is thought, that A.N.Radishchev could not estimate that the information on new future existence, being available for now living person, will essentially affect its mentality and social behavior. In author's understanding A.N.Radishchev's statement now could sound so: « the Nobility that veins and to live again ». Perhaps, in such perusal start to play new paints.
« For us transformation on this ground in future human or other alive forms » [8, p.78] is more alien. Probably, K.Lamont would change the point of view if knew, that subjective immortality essentially does not suppose transformation in « other alive forms ».
Or here still, at all recent: « … there is no sense to consider, for example, ideas of the Buddhism, with its faith in resettlement of souls and the doctrine about a nirvana as prime target of progress of the person. It is deadlock on a way to actual immortality » [6, p.78]. First, a Buddhist sansara - not resettlement, and something more refined. Secondly, that is true, is true - a nirvana - not « the prime target of progress », and here, in the third, the parable about a trough, water and the child for some reason occurs. However we promised to not argue.
Yes, the idea of subjective immortality was difficult for understanding for its any rational explanations were not maintained till now by critics, and transcendental - did not satisfy. The idea about « invariancy of the subjective beginning to variation of system of readout » too keeps within far not in any head, but in it we are powerless something to help.
Summing up the given section, we shall note, that we would not like to raise the question as to, what immortality is better (or is worse). It is independent and very serious subject matter, certainly, contrary to preceding, not dependent only from personal tastes and predilections, is a social and world outlook problem. It would be desirable to warn against one: at the initial stage when the materialism only just starts to refuse the uncooperative altitude to immortality, - has not stuck dignity of one of its forms to transform into lacks another. It is saved up too little to divide.
In the end of the chapter when the string of one narration comes to an end, and the new string was not fastened yet, it is possible to afford deviation, not troubling itself care of its docking with other statement. As that deviation we shall talk about 'possibility' information, and maybe, and material communication with hereafter the world. At once we shall note, that here there will be no seat to spiritism - the subject matter well enough developed in fiction, however not having the attitude to a serious science.
This is the work of American physician-researcher Robert Moody with people returning to life after clinical death, as well as on similar studies carried out a number of French specialists: C. Ring, P. Dyuavrinom etc. At stories reanimated there is a certain general characteristic plot for all, that forces to be in earnest to similar narrations enough. The general with reanimated consists in situations, first, that 'therefrom' people come back with a certain set of memoirs, i.e. behind feature as though there is no nonexistence, and process of processing and accumulation of the information proceeds. Secondly, plots of stories vary in certain, enough narrow frameworks. It is the light or dark tunnel leading somewhere, somebody in white attires, soaring above the own died body, its supervision as though from (deportation), etc. Certainly, the most simple interpretation of all of it reduces to a recognition of a reality of existence of soul, and in this sense at first sight it does not fit in any way into the concept of immortality in a materialistic way, and only therefore it would be possible to not mention it.
However among works of last decade, devoted to problems of death, as well as a possibility of a life after death, researches of the mentioned authors attract attention, and we would commit a mistake, having bypassed their silence. First of all, causes the certain confidence a procedure of carrying out of their researches, based on the serious scientific approach, and it that « the scientific range » is very limited: few tens patients, with the though and documentary, but a subjective material.
How it is possible to interpret rationally the data received in researches of mentioned authors? The answer to a brought attention to the question thus, would seem is unique: described pictures and plots - result of a special condition of the person during reanimation, special dreams and the hallucinations which are taken place in a condition of clinical death. However, the doctor of psychology K.Ring considers, that « … neither dreams, nor hallucination here there is nothing, and consequently experts on thanatology (a science about laws of dying) should combat on two fronts: to batter numerous mystics as well as to repulse those who simplistic reduces phenomenon NDE (a condition, close to death) to usual hallucinations » . Not wishing to become a contradictory side of ' the second front », the author, nevertheless, protects definition 'special', at the same time understanding evanescence this protection.
It is possible to explain similarity or similarity of the descriptions presented reanimated, similarity of display of the brain mechanisms which have appeared in similar extreme (as a matter of fact, boundary) conditions, similarity of any structural properties of a brain and related bodies of vision.
Earlier we described 'visions' of the persons who are being a condition of deep meditation; there too similar sensations were marked. However, sensations staying in coma and meditating people are various. Well, that: in one case - actual dying, in other - whatever, but not death. If to recognize stories visited for a side of a life and death the special form of hallucinations or dreams, that, according to our assumptions, immediately there is an idea about brain an alpha a rhythm. Objective data speak, that in comas the alpha-rhythm on EEG is not observed. Earlier we unconditionally agreed with it, believing, that in similar conditions self-applicability (and so, and connected with it an alpha-rhythm) stop.
In a view of the considered data it is possible to come out with other assumption: at patients, which else it is possible to reanimate, the alpha-rhythm does not disappear completely, and is masked any other powerful brain process. And as consequence - such assumption: 'died', but a subject reanimations if this complex of measures to them to apply, always see dreams, probably, even brighter, than usual. Probably, availability of such dream when the brain stops last reserve to be on check of the capacity a brain thinking, - a sign of convertibility of process of dying.
It is possible to assume, that singularity invertible at external influence of a coma dream consists in the following. The plot of a usual dream is not a subject to direction from its 'hero': all copes an invisible hand of the invisible director. The coma dream (we shall use such term not accepted by a medical science), probably, proceeds in another way. The participant of a dream through a dream as though partially realizes an actual situation, trying with it to interfere, from here - a sight from. However motor mechanisms were disconnected, and there is a role of the detached onlooker. Now it is fashionable to speak about so-called « operated dreams » (read, for example Castaneda's works ). Quite probably, that the coma dream designated by us concerns to the category of operated dreams. Only the plot specifies it not dreamer at the desire, and any deep structures of a brain, the certain archetypes defined collective unconscious .
All this, certainly, abstract enough assumptions, but they allow to speak about an indispensability of more thin investigative techniques of the objective processes proceeding in an organism at a stage of its dying.
It is interesting to compare memoirs of the foreign reanimated patients to stories of our compatriots who have visited behind fatal feature. Here a number of dialogues and monologue in the given occasion.
- What did you see on « volume light »?
- Anything. There was a black failure, and nothing more was not until I have not opened an eye in hospital after revival.
- - I did not see any kingdom of heaven … Have fallen unconscious also all.
- - Certainly, I did not see any « that light ». There was a loss of consciousness because, that the brain has ceased to work at approach of death. And all.
- - Any sensations will not be … angels, devils as it is necessary under the statement of churchmen, I did not see. Simply … the consciousness … has disappeared Is not present, anything informs about the otherworldly world I can not. It simply is not present .
From comments we shall refrain. Clearly one - compatriots here at anything. Memoirs after clinical death until then will remain cleanly subjective factors which are not a subject strict scientific research, and, consequently, capable to cause only natural human curiosity, and sometimes - unnecessary religious gamble, while these memoirs will not be objectified.
Let's admit, memoirs are actual, i.e. are not invented after return by a life. In this case two interpretations excluding each other are possible. Interpretation the first. The consciousness can exist outside of the material carrier, i.e. a brain. Consequently, consciousness primarily, and we, thus, should rise on a position of the outlook opposite materialistic. In this case it is absolutely unessential to investigate EEG a brain in a coma. But then becomes somehow not clear: why such non-material category as the consciousness, all the same unequivocally enough responds on especially material receptions of technics of reanimation and comes back back much more often, than for the lack of this, even at availability of passionate prays.
The second interpretation. Memoirs are 'after' the processes proceeded in a brain when the patient was in a condition of clinical death. As any biological process is accompanied by electric activity, EEG a brain should fix it. R.Moody writes: « … in all cases with which I dealt, there was a clinical situation of the critical order; clinical physicians were disturbed first of all with a problem of return of patients by a life, therefore there was no time for removal EEG » [83, p.73]. That is true, is true: death - not proving ground. But the further reasonings after which R.Moody declares: « From here I to arrival to a conclusion, that EEG represent not so greater value at the present stages of research » [83, p.74], - certainly, debatable. If we accept the second interpretation availability of "straight line" on EEG can speak about low sensitivity of the device, a bad procedure of measurement, presence of masking factors, etc., but, by no means, not about validity of the first interpretation.
Probably, besides to a class of the phenomena, as « posthumous experiences », it is necessary to carry so-called reincarnation memoirs. The name - reincarnation - speaks that they as though come to the person from any previous life. So, the person never was, for example, in Egypt, can, as actual to perceive any specific events which are taken place in this country, say, during an epoch of pharaons. It is natural, that religious interpretation of similar memoirs is unequivocal: reincarnation as resettlement of souls or as transformation "I" exist, and if the person, for example, recalls « alive pictures » from a life of Egypt of times of pharaons, that, means, in any previous life this person really lived in Egypt.
As well as posthumous, reincarnation memoirs cannot be subjected any scientific objectification, except for comparison of the data informed by the subject, to a true state of things. So, the subject can describe an arrangement of streets of city in which he never was and about which he could not receive the information from other sources in any way. Certainly, it would be possible to concern to the similar phenomena as well the organized mystification. However statements of quite authoritative experts, for example, « we should reckon reincarnation with memoirs as with actual phenomena of our life » [12, p.190], do not allow to make to us this step.
Reincarnation memoirs arise far not at all people and is distant not always. That they could arise, the patient should be in the certain psychological condition, for example, in a condition of meditation, under action of hypnosis, etc. Here is how describes R.Moody's this 'technics'.
« Under hypnosis the subject was offered to make intellectual immersing during more and more early periods of its life. When he reaches the earliest temporary a point what he in a condition to recollect in the present life to him suggest to penetrate for this feature. In this instant many start to tell in detail about the previous lives during earlier times and in other removed seats. In some cases these stories at check appeared surprisingly precise » [83, p.70]. What it is possible to answer all this? As shows life experience, value and a role of the fact is often defined not by the fact, and its interpretation. About supernatural - we earlier have mentioned.
It should be noted that the model of subjective immortality, as proposed in this book, the memoirs of reincarnation is not directly applicable, since in our model, no transfer of information (a reincarnation memories - is primarily a reproduction of "transfer" of information) does not occur. Thus, if separate reincarnation memoirs - the fact it requires the rational interpretation on any other basis.
The postulate of a today's science - the information which has been saved up in ontogeny, - through the mechanism of a heredity is not passed. At the same time one of possible rational explanations of the fact of reincarnation memoirs - to cast into doubt absolute infallibility of this postulate. The thesis about the 'algorithmic' nature of work of a brain really allows to see the certain weakness of traditional opinion. Especially well it is looked through on an example of animals.
Really, cubs of animals are born, being 'trained' to certain 'knowledges' of a life. The today's level of our knowledge in this regard carries learning to an instinct, i.e. to innate ability. But capacity to any action (including to instinctive) is caused by the certain information processes going in a brain, as leads us to an indispensability to recollect algorithm. Thus, the algorithms providing, at least, instinctive activity, are by right of succession passed!
Now, if we let us recall, that duplication and activity of a brain at the person can be described (conceptually, certainly) by the same universal interpreting model, the assumption that at someone any separate, "personal" memoirs can appear hidden in genic structures and sometimes, under any special conditions,
reproduced in structures brain, should not seem so improbable. Consequently, quite probably, that so-called reincarnation memoirs to that refers to as reincarnation, actually have no attitude.
Let's stop, on one problematic subject matter connected with reincarnation memoirs. It is known, that motive power of evolution is accidental selection and mutations: positive mutations are fixed, negative - are rejected. The idea about transfer of individually saved up information (ontogeny) in the hereditary mechanism brings a attention to the question on existence of one more evolutionary principle which contains an element of expediency.
Individual experience collects in the basic two ways - a method of imitation and a trial and error method. Following on any of these ways (or on two at the same time), the individual acquires the knowledge allowing it most adequately to coexist with an environment; the element of expediency also consists in it, actually. Illogically (from our, human point of view) when the saved up positive knowledge genetically to posterity are not passed, but it maybe illogical and from the evolutionary point of view. Nevertheless, directly observable transfer of knowledge does not occur, and with this fact it is necessary to be considered.
We bring a attention to the question here about transfer to the hereditary mechanism not any accidental knowledge (though reincarnation memoirs just concern to those), and only about existence of the special mechanism which would allow to do such transfer. In the Turing model conform to this mechanism following structural transformations of model: the information recorded in external zones of a tape, gets in a zone « own description » that is possible if there were any structural variations in the model (probably, other interpretations of this mechanism) are possible also. Another is important: we can assume, that between the mechanism of a heredity and 'mechanism' of information brain activity there is hidden while from us a communication. Now it is hard to tell, whether this communication by an atavism or it, to the contrary, any new, earlier not existed processes is. Clearly one, that such communication should not be represented unnatural and if it really exists, it shows unknown to us principles of evolution.
Chapter 7. The LINE of PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE
And he said to them: Take heed what you hear:
sort of measure of measure, such a meted
would you ...
Mark Holy Blessing
(Chapter 4, verse 24)
Influence of faith in immortality (if this faith is enough widespread among members of a society) for a social life indoubtedly. In this regard doubts are hardly possible. Other question, whether the faith in immortality or knowledge what it exists is necessary for harmonization of a social life of a society? To us it is thought, that the experts working in the field of philosophy, sociology and other disciplines concerning the specified question, can find many arguments and counterarguments in the given occasion.
The author, in turn, cannot pass by this subject matter and not take advantage of following analogy from area of cybernetics. If to consider a human society (society) as complex system with the certain fraction of simplification in it it is possible to allocate two parts: material culture (in the further this part we shall name for brevity the term society) and set of elements of system, i.e. people. Among the every possible information channels functioning in similar system, it is possible to allocate two neatly designated directions of movement of the information: from elements of system (i.e. people) to socium and in the opposite direction. In this two-orientation abundantly clear position is expressed: people create society, and it causes their social behaviour, otherwise, a human society - typical system with a feedback.
The certain background to such approach can be found, for example, in K.Boulding's article « the general theory of systems - a skeleton of a science »: « It is represented tempting to define the social organizations or nearly so any social system as set of the roles connected together by liaison channels … Unit of such systems is, possibly, not the person - the separate person, as those, - and a role - the "part" of the person which is taking part the appropriating organization or a situation » [24, p.119].
However, in our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention to the important circumstance. On the one hand, influence of each person on society, as a rule, oversteps the bounds of its direct life cycle (the role lives longer his executor). Influence maybe greater or smaller, depending both from scale of the person, and from confluence of specific circumstances. Even such, apparently, natural "act" of the person, as a birth of children, - the most powerful factor of influence of the person on society in sense of reproduction of this society at a level of elements making it.
On the other hand, the society acts on the person only in its borders final and temporal existence. If in similar system to consider influence of society on the person as a direct signal, and action of the person on society - a signal of a feedback we have system in which action of a feedback as though is late in relation to a direct signal. In other words, the society constantly is under influence of conservative ideas. If to accept an opposite direction of signals - direct from the person to society and the return from society to the person at the same different duration of direct signals and signals of a feedback it is possible to speak as though about temporal cancellation of separate branches of a feedback, i.e. their break,
that inevitably should lead to deterioration of system.
The resulted analogy to not completely balanced cybernetic system, certainly, is very conditional. However examples of conservatism of environment observable in actual history in relation to radical elements and temporal losses of social orientation, it is especially frequent among youth, testify, that our analogy is successful. Using this comparison and further, it is possible to tell, that similar unbalance will not be, if durations of action of direct and return signals will be equal, otherwise, if borders of life cycle of the person will be equal temporal to an interval of its influence on society. As the last always more than the first we come, apparently, unexpectedly, to idea of advantage of personal immortality from the point of view of construction of the harmonized society. Certainly, it is simplified, «cybernated» a sight at a social role of immortality. However to same "conclusion" the human society has come, having created a phenomenon of religion with its idea of immortality of human soul.
Hardly something will change in a social role of immortality if to refuse personal immortality as impossible (at least, in the foreseeable future) and to admit to a question on death idea of a phenomenon of eternal life. It and the cybernated analogy as in last elements of system (i.e. persons) - are not personified (let us recall about roles), by the way, can confirm. Thus, we are assured of validity of a following conclusion: 'imposed' to certain a number of people in our country the materialistic outlook, having rejected religious faith in immortality, has deprived a society of the most powerful social factor-forming, not having found it as the actual life has shown, equivalent replacement. The same it is possible to tell and about other countries to which the faith during a life after death among the population goes on a loss.
Having recognized validity of a postulate on harmonizing influence of idea of immortality on a social life of a society, we should recognize at the same time, that though the concept of religious immortality still exists, we, nevertheless, should understand, that return to it - a step back, a step in a false direction. In the same objectives more properly, in our opinion, to give to a phenomenon of subjective immortality a rank of a scientific hypothesis.
So, we shall consider, that influence of a phenomenon of subjective immortality on questions of social and moral character (under condition of wide recognition of this phenomenon by a society) is indisputable. However possible social consequences of they are are so vast, what not maybe speeches even about brief consideration all of them within the limits of our book even in the approximate plan. Therefore further we shall stop only on one-two questions which are at the moment represented us by the most important. One of them - a question on religion. That we have begun with it, certainly, far not incidentally.
It is not necessary to speak, as it apparently, that the religion is one of the main tree trunks on whom the human civilization has grown. Short-sighted (and can, too perspicacious) woodcutters in due time have much worked, and now at times work, as though on any blinding to fall down this trunk. However the life has shown, that neither scientific, nor ideological props could not keep to the full that began to fall with swayed was a trunk.
Blinding, it looks like passes. Many have understood, that religion - a part of universal culture, besides a considerable part. Fighters with religion, especially if in the struggle they use the barbarous weapon - destruction and defilement of temples, extreme propagation and so forth, are the first enemies of culture. That this struggle goes under a banner of a science, - not justificatory, and, more likely, an aggravating instant. The relationship of a science and religion, arising from different "horizons", leads to the most complicated interlacings in many planes of a human life. But intersection of a science and religion if it forms a political line, it is necessary to consider irrational.
Subject matters of the future progress of two basic world outlook streams of a human idea - the most complicated question of prospects of progress of a terrestrial civilization. Speak, the future shoots grow ripe from crops of the past. It should be remembered always. The confrontational line between a science and religion deeply got that into one, in other side, invariable passing on the person.
Science for a long time, and the main thing is resolute, has pressed religion from area of a material world: now seldom who tries to explain secrets of this world display of divine will. In the world of a matter it is boundless the science, and here in the world ideal the jumping-off places won by her dominates, are not so extensive, and "gains" - are not so unequivocal.
Human soul - one of the main pillars of religion. From successful the religion should incur invasion of a science into this area of an essential loss, and we should not underestimate gravity of consequences which thus can arise. Attempting on precious talisman of religions - a human soul, the author tests strong awkwardness: whether thousand-year harmony can be replaced by the newest algebra of self-applicability? But, what to do? The vector of scientific knowledge is always directed to area of knowledge of a rational image of the world. And if inadvertently started up arrow will get in other-wordly spaces for it, we still have one - consequences of such shot should be responsibly realized.
The reader, certainly, understands, that danger consists not in falling morals: first, its level and so (at least, in a number of the countries) it is not so high, Secondly, the new sight at a problem of immortality should, as we think, to lead to its rise; some backgrounds of it have been given above, still any - we shall try to give hardly later. Danger in global demolition of outlooks, and there where something breaks, not all at once turns out well even if old has become obsolete.
It's time to bring a little historical image, took some of his statements P. Holbach. For the French materialists of XVIII century (and not only for them, certainly) in their 'just' struggle against religion it was absolutely clear, that one of the central bastions of last is the human soul. Therefore attacks in this direction were neatly organized. « Unless not apparently, that the soul depends on accommodation of parts of a body, and from the order in which these parts in common function", - wrote Holbach. « Therefore, if the organic structure, that, undoubtedly is destroyed, the soul … all is destroyed also should convince us that it perishes together with a body ». Holbach, using the term of a shower, understands, that it is not something mystical: « … that … the soul forms a part of our body, and it can be distinguished from it only in abstraction, that it is the same body only considered concerning some functions and capacities … » [84, p.70]. At known work of imagination so word often used by us self-applicability in mouth Holbach would not seem to the reader inappropriate.
Accepting, that « there is nothing more standard, than a doctrine about immortality of soul, and anything more widespread, than expectation of afterlife », Holbach discredits this doctrine, trying to tell the truth, sharp, cruel and unequivocal, as impact of an axe: « … it (death. - B.P.) is simply a dream of a life … this dream it will not be broken by any unpleasant dreams, and … it never will follow heavy awakening » [84, p.78]. In a view of our assumptions 'awakening', to be exact, new occurrence from nonexistence, will just follow.
The logic of reasoning Holbach is especially interesting to us, because (in that value in what we use this word) we shall deduce opposite judgements from idea of immortality. « The senseless doctrine about beyond the grave existence impedes to work to people for the sake of the original happiness, to think of improvement of the establishments, laws, morals, sciences. Empty dreams have engrossed all of them attention. They are ready to groan under a yoke of religious and political tyranny, to stagnate in error and to languish in misfortune with hope to be sometime happier, with firm confidence, that their sufferings and their stupid patience will bring it eternal pleasure … So the doctrine about the future life has appeared one of the most fatal errors of mankind. This doctrine has made people apathetic, indifferent and indifferent to the happiness or has generated at them the mad fanaticism often pushed them on mutual annihilation in the name of heavenly pleasure … » [84, p.76].
To us the 'truth' stated by mouth of Holbach is thought, that, it has appeared to half-truth which often happens worse lie. Having deprived with the person, in praise-worthy aspiration to make its more moral, hopes for immortality, having told to it the severe truth (as though the truth) about its seat in current a turn of times, materialists of new time, not wishing, certainly, it, have opened an opening or a gate (is not known how more precisely to define) for immorality of new egocentric type.
We are not going to argue with Holbach, but here, only one small citation: « … the voice of reason and properly understood interest equally should arm us against the uncertain fears, inspired to us with imagination in communication with death » [84, p.78]. As it would be desirable to know, that understood Holbach as « properly understood interest ». Whether in « properly understood interest » the thesis « As it would be desirable to know, that understood Holbach as « properly understood interest ». Whether in « properly understood interest » the thesis « All permitted »?
What agitating question! It would be possible to wave away, certainly, from it. However it is quite natural: if I shall be, whom? Generally speaking, when we ask other person - who he whom he is its person and the attitude of this person with society means. When we ask such question in relation to ourselves we mean not only our person, but also capacity to be the person, i.e. that has been named by the subjective beginning earlier. The person as it has been told repeatedly, with death disappears and in identity to himself never again does not arise.
When the question designated above in its statement some elements of the answer are assumed is asked: I shall be not that person whom I am now, and any another (thus under I here am understood capacity to be the person). The answer is not so combined, as it could seem at first sight, especially if to consider, that the major source of occurrence of the person is the external information acting first of all from society. Therefore a question « whom I shall be? » In many respects reduces to another - « what structure of society in which there are newborns?». From here it is visible, that any personified, determined answer is impossible; it can have only the likelihood and generalized character.
To receive even such approximate answer, we should create a certain hypothetical model which we shall name reproductive model. Below will was it has been suggested some its versions. At the further description of reproductive model we should use many quite usual words with inverted commas to exclude their common, literal interpretation which inevitably would bring a unnecessary shade in an essence of stated model (such difficulty were marked by us in section « Something about a prefix «re-»). At the same time the author, rejecting the possible remark of the sceptic that speaking a word 'cow', we mean a goat, should admit, that the modern conceptual device and the terminological designs concerning stated subject matter, probably, cannot unequivocally carry their functions, and critically adjusted reader should consider this circumstance.
Let's consider the first, enough a simple version of model. Let's enter concept which we shall name ' rated set ': this is the set of again born people among which there will be also I after the death not as the person and as the carrier of the subjective beginning (here again for convenience of a statement to refuse the third party more expediently and to pass to the first). As such rated set it is possible to consider all mankind. Then it is possible to tell, that with probability of 20 % I in the future life "shall appear" the Chinese and I shall live in China. It is more probable, that under the social status I "shall appear" the person poor, with approximately equal probability I « can become » the man or the woman, etc., etc. Who wishes to define on the basis of this model the 'own' probable future status in more details, can arm with socially-demographic handbooks and make necessary samples. The given model though it is logical and is in own way convincing, has a grave disadvantage: it does not answer a question why as rated set all mankind undertakes? Really, it is possible to assume, that in any countries during certain time birth rate can increase or, to the contrary, to fall off. This circumstance should be considered at definition of the future status. Therefore it is more logical to connect reproductive model not with mankind as those, and with the factor of birth rate. Therefore, to us it is thought, in each specific case from the set conterminous with concept of mankind, it is necessary to allocate some variable subset which we shall name a sold subset.
Birth rate - complex enough and multiplane socially-biological phenomenon. We yet do not assume to consider all variety of this phenomenon in our model, and we shall be limited only to its contours. By development of the future working model (if we shall undertake it to construct) the mentioned variety of circumstances, naturally, it is necessary to consider (see, for example, ).
Who in some detail 'shall be' I after the death? It depends, first of all, on geographical region in which there will be a group of newborns directly after my death (it is necessary to understand, that between these events there is no relationship of cause and effect). We shall emphasize, that speech can go only about time 'after' because 'up to' I still am. Very much a challenging question - how much 'after'. On it the reproductive model of the answer does not give. Much depends on the answer to other question. When in general there is a first link 'I'? From the point of view of psychology if to speak in general about 'I', about consciousness, it not a specific instant, and a time interval having extent.
To simplify a problem, we shall consider, that the first link specific 'I' arises from the beginning of process of self-applicability. Then, it is a precise instant which, basically, can objectively be located. In this case 'after' becomes more certain, but not so that it was possible to tell, nevertheless, to that it is equal - to minute, to hour, day, etc.? Depending on an interval of uncertainty capacity of sold set is estimated. Thus, though the full rated set coincides with the mankind, in fact the sold subset - is less.
If 'I' we have connected occurrence of the first link with occurrence of self-applicability the beginning of its occurrence can be counted from an instant of conception. If and further to adhere to the offered model it is possible to state and the further assumption. Conceptions in everyone temporal a belt have, as a rule, for certain time of day. Consequently, between me and set of among what there will be' I in a following life, it is possible to establish the certain attitude. Depending on an instant of my death it is maybe certain (with reliability, certainly, essentially smaller, than 100 %) temporary a belt in which to this instant the peak of occurrence self-applicability will take place.
Now among a part of the population "procedures" on the basis of which it is possible to define the status of the former existence ostensibly are widespread. It is necessary to tell at once, that our reproductive model of the general with these "procedures" has no anything. Besides similar "procedures", basically cannot be true because of irreversibility of time (at least so the official science considers) and that the quantity born, generally speaking, is more, than dying, and, so, at someone it can "not appear" the previous life. The reproductive model, nothing speaking about the past, can give some very limited information (a geographical belt) on the future with the certain degree of approximateness, but for this purpose for a reference point it is necessary to accept an instant of death which to volume who is interested in the future status, is unknown, or it is known in the certain cases, that, certainly, limits applicability of model. Further, on the basis of use of statistical data on the installed region, it is possible to make the further specifications under the future status.
All born possess identical capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning, and, consequently, each of them is that 'I', in which «I will be reincarnated» after the death. As they say, takes place the formula « who was born, that and I » instead of the habitual formula - « I was born ». But at the same time I « can become I » only as one of many. Depending on the social status of parents of everyone « one of many », as well as a public atmosphere and economic progress of region in which all this will occur, and starting conditions of my future existence will depend. Though the peak of birth rate in each instant of world time is necessary on various geographical zones, apparently, that in each instant children are born everywhere, therefore once again we wish to emphasize, that the considered model is especially likelihood.
The element offered in given model connected with readout of time from an instant of occurrence of self-applicability (if, certainly, it arises in a womb of mother), can be used and is absolutely unexpected, for example, for definition of an instant, when a germ of the person it should be admitted the person that will allow to solve ethical problems, connected with abortions.
The formula « who was born, that and I » allows to construct other reproductive model having not likelihood, but determined character. Proceeding from this formula, it is possible to accept the agreement: so far as all the subjective beginnings are identical, 'my' possible status will be defined with reference to that newborn, self-applicability of brain structures at which will appear after my death before all others. Then that I (or someone another) could learn about this newborn to my (own) death, I or this another should have the information of a following type.
First, the precise instant of approach of death should be in advance known. Apparently, that such it is possible, for example, when it is a question of me, only in two cases: or I am going to commit suicide (the truth, I hardly shall inform someone on it), or someone is going to deprive with me a life (and hardly will inform me on time of fulfilment of the conceived villainy). Consequently, knowledge of the specified instant, basically, probably, but only in single instances. Secondly, there should be some centralized databank which is carrying the information about all conceptions. Though existence of similar bank theoretically probably, the idea on its practical need, to put it mildly, is too fantastic. On the basis of all these reasons we accept the given determined model practically unreal.
We repeatedly including in this chapter, emphasized, that subjective immortality and likelihood reproductive model resulting from it are not connected in any way with transfer from died to born to a certain imperceptible essence. In this sense absence of actual balance between number of birthes and death - one more, let and not the most important, argument in favour of the put forward concept. If to recognize terms regeneration, transformation as a designation of the valid transfer as something (as it and strikes root the Buddhism) availability of the mentioned balance becomes necessary.
Here it is necessary to recognize, that the Buddhist concept of a possibility of transformation not only in the person, but also in animals, or in fantastic essences it has appeared for the given doctrine a saving output. Really, if transformation only within the limits of mankind, was supposed at currently available methods of gathering and processing of statistical data when the parity between number born and died is fairly promptly established, and on a global scale,
adherents of a sansara should explain constantly - where surplus died disappears, and whence there is a surplus born as these numbers practically never happen equal. A lot of fantastic creatures (such as assyrian, shad, martyrs hell birity) - this is a kind of inaccessible to check buffer storage 'device', to which we can always write off the lack of balance. We are not going "to reproach" creators of the Buddhism with similar foresight, and quite the contrary - we wish to emphasize once again harmony and internal consistency of the given philosophical and religious concept.
It is considered to be, that in the person two beginnings coexist: individualist and collectivist. With this statement (the truth, arbitrarily enough) the results received by consideration the universal Turing model can be correlated. Self-applicability of model somehow is maybe put in conformity with egocentric aspirations of the person, while the information recorded on a tape in zones of the target information and memory, cannot appear there without information interchange with an environment (including, if to speak about the modeled subject, - without social experience of the last), i.e. this external information is as though an element of the collectivist beginning.
It is necessary to mean, that both these of a type of the information in model at the generalized level of our consideration in fact did not cooperate among themselves (though such interoperability should take place) and, consequently, could not contradict with each other. Certainly, on the basis of such especially schematic approach it would be wrong to do any final conclusions. But, it appears, the thesis that personal and collective in the person by nature could is in harmonious unity, by consideration of the Turing model if is not proved, is not denied. Why in an actual life the interrelation of these two beginnings of the person constantly puts on trial, and they often enter the conflict with each other?
It is represented to us, that by virtue of developed philosophical (and as consequence, and household) concepts about a life and death in which the person is unique and unique, and its life - only a sparkle in a gloom of eternal nonexistence, the contradiction between individual and collective in the person inevitably.
Individual egocentrism whispers, and even shouts - suffice, take, use, while you are, then all the same nothing will be. The more difficultly social conditions, the can sound this internal voice more loudly. In one collectivist beginning revolts - it is impossible to live as if after us - a flood. Others profess this principle, and calls of the first in fact appear rhetoric, especially when it is a question of interests of the future generations. The person lives in struggle with itself. The religion with its postulate on an immortal soul to a certain extent softens this struggle, and for truly believing simply removes a question on it. Such person lives in full harmony with itself, and, to us is thought, this fact of internal harmony of the believing person in the atheistic doctrine significally is underestimated.
If to start with traditional atheistic understanding of essence of the person between concepts personal and collective the antagonistic contradiction always lays. It especially amplifies, if personal concerns to the present, and collective - to the future.
In this sense the thesis « offer personal (for example, the life) for the sake of general welfare » - personality it is not proved, though socially, probably, it is fair.
The contradiction is removed, if the general interest it becomes valid personal. It means, that the person already now should care of general welfare because in 'following', say so, lives will live again as though. Differently, it will be for the present unknown (or known, but with the big fraction of uncertainty if to use reproductive model) a particle of the general. Therefore its care of others turns around, in essence, care of (will tell more properly - « as though about itself »). Similar strategy of behaviour of the person transforms a public imperative in maxim which sum again develops in an imperative. How here to not recollect a Christian precept « love near, as itself » which operates in the same direction, or I.Kant's vigorous imperative: « Act so that maxim your will could be valid at the same time a principle of the general legislation » (cited by [34, p.41]).
Than it is more in the world of troubles, illnesses, social cataclysms, environmental problems, etc., the more than unfortunate people, the it is less probability of reduction of these harms in the future, and accordingly, above the probability for everyone in a 'following' life to appear in a role made destitute and persecute. Certainly, it is possible for a way of disposal of this threat and it is necessary to look for, for example, in conscious variation of dialectics of communication « destruction - creation » in which accents, undoubtedly, should be displaced aside the second element. However one of ways is found and specified: it - in moral installations of world religions. The in itself subject matter of religious morals is immense, and the author simply not in a condition to capture all its aspects, and not in it he sees the own problem. Impatient often speak, that it is impossible to move forward, all time looking back. Yes, the head should not be turned back, but it should not be and groundless imaginations serenly empty or filled only.
Centuries-old moral experience of religions (not any one of them, namely all) - a fine building material for construction of the future building of social harmony where as an connecting element mystifications and imaginations will be used not, and durable cement of scientific knowledge. Christian or Muslim precepts contain not only religious motives, but also universal installations and values. To us it is thought, that being released from religious mysticism, they, their content, their inner meaning become more certain, more specific, more directed.
Here some words about karma, being one of the central concepts of philosophy of Buddhism and Hinduism supplementing the doctrine about transformation will be pertinent to tell. At superficial interpretation (namely we presume such approach) karma is the sum of the acts accomplished by everyone living being and their consequences which define character of its new birth, i.e. further existence. Own karma the person creates the himself, but then it as the certain invisible force having unknown for the person the mechanism of action, defines its status in the future terrestrial life.
Hoping for that the superficial sight not always happens erroneous, it is possible to assume following, very simple 'formula' of karma. (Now the mathematical word 'formula' from an easy hand of politicians became very widespread). « Provisional personal behaviour - the mortgage of personal well-being in the future life ». The formula as it is visible, focused on the individual and considers first of all its interests. Public interest in it is mediated, maybe, not by quite successful word 'provisional'. Canons of karma specify persons possible scripts of its activity. Canons, certainly, are not accidental, in them the richest social and moral experience, but it all the same canons is reflected.
The formula of a phenomenon of eternal life is more complex. « Good behaviour of each person « in this life » creates the harmonized and prospering public structure, only through which personal well-being of the person in « his new life » is realized. Distinctive and, in our opinion, the important feature of this formula consists that it, first, includes in action society, and directly and, secondly, vectors of personal and public interests in it basically are unidirectional. If we compare the karma of the book of fate (fate) in other religions, the karma seems to be more materialist essence, if only by a person unknown mechanism of its action to realize a very real phenomenon of social existence.
Let's consider, in particular, as the phenomenon of eternal life in comparison to all a familiar Christian precept « thou shalt not kill » can prove. Concerning this precept even supported by appropriating secular laws, there was obviously inconsistent situation. Really, if the person is unique, if he lives only once value of a life should be especially high, apparently, in an ideal - is absolute. But, in words accepting this, human society never really gave for a life the absolute price: it remained and there is those only for the person and for its nearest environment. As a rule, within the limits of their life cycle, and with rare exception, longer. As we see, understanding ostensibly absolute value of a human life does not rescue mankind from wars, violence, murders, and, consequently, postulates on pricelessness of a life turn around rhetoric; pricelessness of a life, in essence, quite often only is declared, and the call « thou shalt not kill » turns to a good wish.
That then can be expected from religious doctrines according to which the person with death comes to an end, and 'I' as though continue to live in the new person? The Life of the specific person in this case should become even less meaningful. Actually, the way it is. In the Bhagavad-Gita we read: 'Anyone who is born, must die, and after death must be born again. Therefore we should not indulge in grief, the line of duty '[86, p.118].
And how it is necessary to concern to value of a life and inevitability or in special cases even an indispensability of death, proceeding from a phenomenon of eternal life? Not having actual experience (it is difficult to author Hindu eschatology to accept as experience), leaning only on assumptions, it is complex to count on reception of the unequivocal answer to this question. To us it is thought, that value of a life should get other content: often rhetorical sense (objectively it not rhetorical) this concept should to be replaced, probably, more actual, giving in to a reasonably fair assessment: If the person is active, active, if it, working on the present, by that does a lot of useful to the future (still, will live there!) moral norms of a society will estimate such person above, than a life of the tyrant, the idler, etc. In fact, the differentiation and now takes place, but it is shaded by a principle of uniqueness of a life. In similar differentiation, on our belief, there is nothing bad: social selection (in sense of an assessment, instead of elimination) should operate in a proper direction, and at new treatment of immortality it, probably, will occur especially effectively. In this connection it is represented to us, that value of a human life in case of an actual recognition of a phenomenon of subjective immortality becomes only above as in this case becomes more obvious, that each specific life - not « accidental gift », and the necessary, constantly existing factor,
only by means of which the human society both realizes itself, and provides the progressive progress.
If now a criterion of value of a life is its uniqueness (unkept pricelessness) new moral laws should bring to existence other quality standard: the responsibility from which living should concern to the life (not in sense - he protects it or not, and in sense of its quality). At a new sight at a problem of immortality the declaration on pricelessness of a life in understanding people can cease to be those and then the responsibility for quality of a life will find true, instead of declarative sense. And, probably, in this case the reason, this invaluable treasure which, undoubtedly, should be cherished and protected and which frequently is thoughtlessly sprayed on poor objectives, is eclipsed by an alcoholic and narcotic dope finally becomes the original, dominating factor of our life.
In differentiation, except for positive, there is a negative side: some people, especially at whom the life as it seems to them, has developed unsuccessfully, will concern not so carefully to it. Differently, the number of suicides can increase. In all religions in relation to suicides there are rigid enough condemning motives which really limit this phenomenon. In our case of clearly visible, direct deterrent (the fear before the divine punishment) is not present, except for mediated: a non-realized life - not completed element of the future.
And one more instant concerning subject matter of conversation: how the society should concern to hopelessly sick people, to the people cruelly suffering from physical uglinesses, as well as to mentally defective and how they will concern to themselves? Now the principle of humanity says - suffer, but live, for other to you it is not given. Now, if we shall know (precisely nobility!), that other is given, the attitude to this question should undergo to reassessment. The question on a death penalty as means of punishment and intimidation on the one hand, and a way of disposal of a society from asocial elements - with another will be rethought also. We, perhaps, shall finish it.
Chapter 8. If we live, we die, then we'll see
(An epilogue for the sceptic)
If the elephant's cage will read the inscription
"Buffalo", do not believe your eyes.
So, we have finished, and at the sceptic - questions, questions … As so, are come out with assumptions, to put it mildly, not trivial, and where proofs, even hints on them? The Sceptic of the rights, subject matter is too serious to not give it a background.
And though all the previous pages have been devoted to search of the answer, we shall return back once again, now we shall pass, so to say, on items more briefly.
The first. Whether so the materialistic model of immortality offered ostensibly is fair? If to it to be guided, nearby and before denying the fundamental formula « the matter is primary, consciousness for the second time ». What it is possible to answer it? First, nobody attempts upon integrity and validity of this formula. If to track a way of progress of the author's argument at one stage of construction of model the consciousness did not act as the independent essence which has been torn off from material structure, i.e. a brain. The another matter, and it, secondly, consciousness, to be exact, its making link - capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning in model has really appeared the main thing, a decisive element in a background of a phenomenon of subjective immortality, the matter has departed as though on the second plan.
Occurrence of similar inversion speaks not about infringement of the considered formula, and about ours, probably, the simplified approach to it. However, and in it an essence of new perusal of the formula, at least, for the author, secondariness of consciousness at all does not mean its subordination of the matter. Yes, the consciousness cannot arise outside of the matter, but in the certain cases (including in case of with a phenomenon of subjective immortality) it as though occurs: the consciousness, instead of a material substratum in which it arises, appears the main element creating the given phenomenon.
The second. Where proofs, what the Turing machine can be considered as information model of a brain? The basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms (it is emphasized, a hypothesis which is not maybe proved) says, that « any algorithm is maybe set by means of a function chart and realized in appropriating the Turing machine » [46, p.121]. Therefore if the brain works algorithmically, our assumption of existence of a Turing model of the information processes proceeding in a brain, fairly. At the same time existence of a class of problems for which decision basically there is no algorithm is proved. Perhaps, any from these problems "are solved" a brain? For an output from deadlock we shall argue so.
The brain solves set of creative problems, which sceptics consider not formalizable, but as it all the same solves them, means, there is the actual process leading the decision. Let this process does not possess property mass character (mass character - one of the major properties of algorithm), but in a specific brain, under specific conditions the decision took place, and the statement of the problem about it the Turing modeling, consequently, is competent. Consequently, the algorithm is not present when the problem basically is not solved. Whether is it is a sign of abnormally working brain?
The third. Whether it is possible to prove our basic assumption what self-applicability of universal Turing model is information model of the certain brain process which is providing the foundation for occurrence of consciousness? It is impossible to prove this assumption strictly mathematically. And not because the author is not able to prove, and basically it is impossible. First, we do not know, that such consciousness and consequently we can not define this concept in language of mathematics. Secondly, self-applicability, apparently, more strict concept which could be described in language of formal procedures, however in the theory of algorithms is proved, that the concept of self-applicability is not maybe recorded by any algorithm, i.e. formal procedure or the formula. So, from us the proof, that a=b is required, we with pleasure would make it, but there is no basic possibility formally to describe, that such «a», that such «b». How to prove their equality?
The fourth. The structures of a brain responsible for occurrence of the first link in a circuit of consciousness, at all people are identical - whether so it actually? The theory of algorithms both confirms a possibility of similarity of universal models, and supposes their versions having structural distinctions. The reasonings lead from positions of evolution of model, allow us to prefer the first. It is necessary to look for these structures. However, as we do not know morphology of required object, searches will go, so to say, blindly. One calms here - probably, to work it is possible with a dead brain. So, we shall remain at a level of a hypothesis, in our opinion, quite realistic.
The fifth. The idea of a phenomenon of eternal life is under construction on a postulate of similarity of capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning. Whether it is possible to prove this similarity? Really, we have accepted, that identical self-applicable structures generate identical links of consciousness. But mathematically it is impossible to prove it besides, and for the same reason it is impossible to describe strictly algorithm of consciousness for it, this algorithm, does not exist. However we do not know that any example that identical structures in identical conditions generated various processes.
The sixth. We in fact postulated, that identical is all the same, that the same. Whether and so it? The mathematician will tell: identical is same, but not the same. Really, it is possible to result simple, but a convincing example. Here before us two a congruent triangle. We distinctly see, that they congruent, ie are identical, but here this is drawn more to the left, and this - more to the right. And what more to the left, it not the same, that more to the right, it same, but it … more to the left. Here and the answer to sceptics. They had to use external coordinates (left - right). Capacity to occurrence of the subjective beginning (the first link "I") arises only in the internal language which is not having any external comparisons.
Let's result a counter example. Take the same two a congruent triangle, place the observer - an essence from the two-dimensional world - all over again in the left triangle, then in right (or to the contrary), not informing it in what of triangles he is. The author very much would like, that sceptics have prompted the internal observer as it by means of his own internal means, without the reference to an external environment, to define, he is in which triangle.
The seventh. Where they, these two links 'I' who saw them? Probably, anybody. At an idea on availability of two links of consciousness directs an established fact of the two-process nature of work of a brain (ñì.: K.Pribram « Languages of a brain » [64, p.40]), or mentioned before the statement of introspektsionists. But the conclusion about interrelation of these two phenomena while remains in the field of assumptions which or includes a point entitled true, or is not present. More convincing confirming of the given idea, in our opinion, is the fact of the two-process nature of the self-applicable universal Turing model.
The fact that the theoretical proof of many of the provisions can not be nominated, probably not by accident. Here the important role played by the fundamental fact, which follows from Gödel's theorem on the boundedness of formal systems. In particular, the human consciousness which has created the world of modern mathematics, is not maybe described by its means.
Eighth. What kind of immortality, if a person disappears, if I am, Somnenie Neveryana Fomich not be? Yes, subjective immortality does not imply preservation of identity, as permitted in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, some varieties of Hinduism. However if to afford some fraction of irony though the subject matter of discussion and has no to it it is possible to ask that is more interesting: to live one "infinite" life in one role or "infinite" set of usual lives in different roles? Certainly (excuse for a unintentional tautology), it, as they say, to whom as and about what dispute - the choice is not present; we are not guilty, that the dark blue bird has appeared a titmouse, instead of a crane.
Remember, we spoke about impossibility of stay of one person in shape another (less harmonious expression there has been used). Yes, in one life - something is impossible, but similar to it, only in different lives, - is made constantly. These are different lives and it is impossible (fortunately or unfortunately?) to compare one to another. Each life is lived as though for the first time and as though only once. But knowledge what it nevertheless not so, probably, something means?
Difficult way to understanding so, to acceptance of the Phenomenon of Eternal Existence (PhEE) lays through overcoming of misunderstanding and even ignorance of essence of human consciousness. To us, probably, finally it was not possible to prove scientific language (and what else?) this essence. Scientific language, really, is always complex also its complexity, as a rule, consists in direct dependence on complexity of a problem. Therefore our attempt during the book meets the requirements of scientific severity could to minimize interest to idea PhEE from weight of ordinary publics. And we wish to address and to such people. So, before us the simple person, as sometimes speak - « the person from street », the philistine.
We would begin the reference to it with a question - that in it, in the simple person, is such, that allows it to stay in a condition of life: to not be considered alive, namely, to be, i.e. to speak, to hear, to understand, to see, to work, have a rest, be pleased, to suffer and so forth and so forth? Probably, it is necessary to be a final fool to not answer this, in general, a simple question: « yes, it is necessary to have consciousness, it is necessary to be in consciousness. Well, and, certainly, for this purpose it is necessary to be first of all alive. Because it is impossible to be in consciousness, being dead ». Statement simple, even as though a naive question, we have reached much: we in the most complicated problem have allocated a part, too extremely complex, but all the same a part. Therefore it became convenient to us to speak about a condition of life, instead of about a condition of a life in general.
Because of it we could promote in understanding PhEE still slightly: for eternal life the eternal consciousness is necessary. Let's explain, how by itself understood, that a dream, even a faint, even clinical death though they temporarily interrupt life, we did not begin to consider as the conditions excluding PhEE: really, after a dream wake up, the faint comes to an end, from coma too it is possible to deduce (unfortunately, not always).
Thus, as though an absolute obstacle for the statement of true PhEE is the original death of the person. We have written 'as though' though in understanding the modern person with reference to considered subject matter of it 'as though' simply is not present. To show relevance in this case it 'as though', we shall ask the same question: what factor in the person (or outside of the person?) allows it to be in consciousness?
If it is brief, here it is possible to list three answers: - the consciousness is display of soul of the person, - consciousness - the special phenomenon existing outside of a matter, - the consciousness is provided with the special process proceeding in a brain of the person (to name besides a brain other body in a body of the person on modern scientific views illiterately).
Acceptance of the first or second answer means transition to the religious point of view, or a position of philosophical dualism. In itself such transition is not criminal, it cannot be forbidden any norms of morals, especially - secular laws.
However, reflect for a second, the simple person: if you trust, what the consciousness is soul to you will uneasy explain - why impact by a stick on a head forces soul 'to be disconnected'? You should build a complex explanation - why the material stick thus influences a non-material soul. The similar complex explanation should be thought out and in the second case when the consciousness exists irrespective of a matter. The material stick has shown such dependence more than evidently! Actually as all simply turns out: the material force created by a material stick, has broken work of any material body on a brain, and the person has fallen unconscious. This, a little bit frivolous example with a stick was necessary only for that in our repeated reasonings once again to keep separate from religious and dualistic views. So, the consciousness of the person - result of work of its brain, that completely conforms to data of a modern science.
It is considered to be - how many people, it is so much and consciousnesses. All people different, means, and consciousnesses are various? But what it means, what consciousnesses are various? And in what attitude to life there are various consciousnesses? How it is possible to answer these questions if the science till now definitely and precisely has not answered another, but main issue - that such consciousness? Strange there is a situation - consciousness, here it here, consciousness each normal person, and that it such possesses, nobody knows. Consciousness - great secret of the nature!
We would not like, that us have counted as the upstarts, speaking that we do not know. We know something about consciousness; it is possible to tell more softly - we assume, that we know. This knowledge of consciousness - from that side from which at it never looked. That, the sight from a unexpected side at times leads to unexpected opening, even - to revelations.
All know, that during work of a brain (and the consciousness is a process of a working brain) on nervous ways and its units neural electrical pulses circulate. How of alternation of material impulses there is a non-material consciousness? We should pay attention that all these impulses, all nervous signals circulate inside of a brain, inside of a body of an organism. How to distinguish external and internal signals, whether it is necessary to distinguish? To distinguish it is necessary, for otherwise the internal and external worlds for an organism will be merged together. It is possible to object, certainly, that one (external) signals act from external receptors, and others - from internal. But this objection is insolvent, first, all receptors, anyhow, belong to a body, and, secondly, sometimes 'from within', happens difficultly to distinguish - a signal has passed on a circuit going from an external or internal receptor. Vivid example to that - in the certain condition the person cannot distinguish hallucination from the actual image.
So, for up to conscious alive organisms there is the strange situation, very unpleasant discrepancy: the body of animals completely is separated from an environment (exists in the environment independently), and is information (on images of external and internal signals) is as though partially merged with an environment. Not gift, some experts-biologists consider, that animals do not allocate themselves completely from an inhabitancy as it is done, for example, by the person. It has the 'I', and all rest - 'not I'. Animals such capacity and in such degree as the person, do not possess.
Once again let us recall wonderful work Teilhard de Chardin « the Phenomenon of the person ». This author unequivocally approves (and proves), that in process of growth of a tree of evolution the consciousness grew. This growth while has come to the end on the person. So, if the consciousness grew, what, in it grew? Some reasons going from a scientific idea (about it the book) prompt, that capacity of nervous system automatically (we emphasize importance of this word) grew to distinguish internal signals of an organism from signals too internal, but were made an outside world. And so, the arisen and developed capacity of nervous system automatically and completely to distinguish internal signals of an organism and signals of an environment (these, too inside!) also there is a consciousness.
As soon as the specified capacity in a brain was realized (during the book this capacity we named the first link of consciousness; we shall name now it is a ground floor of consciousness) so there is actually a consciousness is its following floor. On the second floor, basically, - any automatics, all (or nearly so all) is made and carried out meaningly. On a ground floor - there is a precondition, the forerunner 'I' which at all people should be identical, on the second - one step at a time is built on any 'I'. Coming back now to life, say: perceives life « I of the second floor », but creates the fact of life « I of a ground floor ». Differently, life at all 'I' one, but is perceived it differently. This statement once again is important for understanding: on it concept PhEE 'keeps'.
Thus, existence in that type in what it is perceived by the person, not is the certain, abstract concept. It - creation of human nature. Existence is created by consciousness. We then only perceive life when we are in consciousness. From here - a seeming formula: first consciousness, for it - existence. But also the consciousness arises from a fundamental principle of the world, from its existence. As it to explain how to not exclaim - dialectic unity of two essence: consciousnesses and existence. Mentioned here « the dialectic unity » extends further away - « a ground floor I » yet do not create consciousness; availability « the second floor I » is mandatory. But the second floor is inconceivable without the first - as in the present building!
And here, when it is constructed two floors, with good reason it is possible to declare: existence is consciousness of own existence. Further, above two floors by all means there is a superstructure - knowledge of existence external in relation to you of the world. By the way, elements of 'superstructure' as though are present and at ground floors, but there they are not realized. What here you will tell? An intricate design; maybe, in particular, because of it so it is difficult to understand it?
Now it is time to us to return to eternal existence. About transformation we shall not repeat: it all is clear. Than, PhEE differs from transformation? In transformation that continues life, is passed from one body to another. In PhEE it that arises in each new human body. Figurative comparison: in transformation occurs «excision» buttons from an old dress and its sewing to new. In PhEE on a new dress the new button, but precisely same what was on old is sewn.
Here the person, trying to understand sense PhEE, and for which the idea of transformation became (or was) clear, using analogy to a dress and a button, will exclaim:
- Well, as, in reincarnation on a new dress sew my button, and you are sewing other button, let and similar, but this is another button, it is not my button!
We have worked through the corridors of the labyrinth attentive reader; inattentive long lost, and no Ariadne's thread did not help him! And so, to the close reader to answer it is possible uniquely: the word 'another' places to us a undistinguished trap, and all of us as careless birds, in it we get. The concept 'another' always assumes comparison, at least, two (it is possible and more) subject matters or concepts. When I (again we have a conversation from the first person), nowadays living person, consider 'others', too nowadays living people, all of them for me others. We shall pay attention, that it is really existing situation. When I transport conversation on 'other' people who will live after my death, the situation radically changes: it from actual turns in mental for I, alive, think about myself as dead, and others were not born yet. It only my idea in which comparison me living is made, with others, not born yet. They 'others' not in a reality, and in my idea. When I shall really die, they cease to be 'others' for me for I already was not present: to compare there is nobody, and the word 'another' becomes illegal. Try to avoid a trap placed by it, such simple word - another.
It was necessary to understand also abnormality of statement of the problem « whom I in previous or whom I shall be in a following life » with reference to PhEE. We shall take advantage of following analogy. We shall compare to each person with a coin (all coins of different dignity, the different form, the different size, are cast from different alloys and so forth and so forth). The death is a collecting coins and sending in the melting furnace. A birth - stamping of new coins from fused old. Whether it is possible, looking at a 'old' coin, something to tell about the future, again rapped out? Or, to the contrary, considering brand new 'fifty-kopeck piece' - to learn, whom it was up to melting?
In summary we shall state last remark intended not only for sceptics. Speaking during the book about the person, all of us time meant his consciousness, a sheaf from two links. But the person possesses, certainly, one more essence - a body. So, unity of three essence - body, the subjective beginning and the person. First there is a body, then - the subjective beginning, and on their basis the person is under construction. It would seem, the death is omnipotent and at once ruins this unique unity. But except for death there is an immortality.
Death and immortality - contrasts, but not excluding, and complementing each other. Death - cruel test for a body. It completely destroys it, but to it not under force to destroy atoms of a body, and they join in infinite circulation of the matter.
Death - severe test for the person, it 'tears off' it from a body, but on greater it is not capable: the person it is necessary to live other life in society, being reflected in other persons. Thus the direct communication - the more considerably the person, the more full his other life in society, the more precisely and more brightly his reflection is available.
Let's refer to K.Lamont's one statement: « as human bodies are wonderful, the nature, finally, refuses them to replace their new; and us should not surprise, that as human persons are wonderful, the nature carries out the same policy in relation to them » [8, p.85].
We need to continue. The death is powerless against the third hypostasis of the person - the subjective beginning: it, as though hidden in the reservation from other two essence, by their death pass the third test and, apparently, perishing, there and then, as the bird the Phoenix, revives again. Refusing a body and from the person, the nature has reserved in the inexhaustible pantries stronger means of conservation of continuity of a life not subject to time. It is the subjective immortality. For it mechanistic interpretation of continuity when one follows something another is characteristic not: the continuity is hidden in the essence of the phenomenon.
And, finally, the author, himself, having risen on a positi